ANTHROPOLOGY (grech, anthröpos of people + logos the doctrine) — the section of biology studying physical human nature and its races in all manifestations of its variability. And. studies a structure and functional departures of a human body in connection with special position of the person in fauna, and also a sex, age, a profession, natural and social conditions and other factors.
By F. Engels's definition, And. makes «transition from morphology and human physiology and its races to history».
In the Soviet literature division took roots And. on morphology of the person, anthropogenesis (see) and a rasovedeniye (see. Races ).
The morphology of the person studies variability of a structure of the living person (somatology) or a dead object (merologiya).
However the somatology includes not only the morphological, but also functional section. In this regard allocate And. anatomic, physiological and biochemical. Similar division is fixed by practice of the last international congresses of anthropological and ethnographic sciences (Moscow, 1964; Tokyo, 1968). The listed departments And. connects a community of methods of a research (mass inspections of the population by methods of a random sample, quantitative and quality standard of signs, use of statistical methods of processing of the results grouped in homogeneous groups — on a sex, age, the constitution, a profession, etc.).
The medical anthropology realizes the principles formulated above during the studying of variability of morbid conditions. Medical And. it is connected with medical geography (see Geography medical) since distribution of a number of diseases is defined in many respects biol, features of population. To medical And. also the court belongs. - honey. And., using data osteology (see), odontology and anthropometries (see) at examination of gender and age of the person, identification of the personality etc.
Special position is held by applied and age A. Pervaya from them is engaged in scientific development of questions of designing of clothes, footwear, furniture, dwellings and so forth in connection with features of an anatomic structure of the person, age, taking into account geographical and climatic conditions etc.
Applied And. deals also with issues of scientific justification of planning of jobs at the industrial enterprises, placements of devices and the equipment in a cabin of cars, airplanes etc. in a way, most convenient for the person. Age And. studies morfofunktsionalny reorganization of an organism, processes of physical development of the person. Separate section age And. (pedagogical And.) it is devoted to features of growth and development of children and teenagers, has close connection with genetics of the person (see). Age And. it is closely connected with gerontology (see), considering the changes arising in a human body during the aging.
Anthropogenesis considers an origin of the person as species and is closely connected with primatology, a paleoanthropology (see), nek-ry sections of geology, and also with archeology.
Rasovedeniye, where entered as a component ethnic And., studies human biology depending on its belonging to a certain race or nationality. On tasks and methods of a research this section A. it is close to population genetics (see), and the obtained data are used in the analysis of an origin of the people — ethnogenesis, and also during the studying of geographical spread of diseases. The important role belongs And. in fight against racism (see).
The anthropogenetics is intermediate between And. and genetics; studies internal and external factors of variability of a human body, and also pattern of inheritance of these or those signs by it (see. Genetics of the person ).
In foreign literature the concept «anthropology» is quite often treated more widely. In addition to physical And., solving the listed above problems, carry the ethnography devoted to material, public and spiritual culture of the people and also folk art and some sections of archeology, psychology, linguistics and sociology to it. So, according to the classification used abroad Vall at and (H. Vallois) And. it is subdivided on zoological, the general and special. Zoological And. considers similarity and distinctions between the person and other primacies, and also evolution of the person. The general And. includes anthropobiology. anatomic, physiological, psychological and pathological A. Spetsialnaya A. it is devoted to studying of human races (modern and died out) and biotypology.
History of anthropology
Single questions And. drew attention of philosophers and scientists still of a classical antiquity (Aristotle, Hippocrates, Herodotus, Pliny, Galen). To development And. works of the reformer of anatomy A. Vezaliya, K. Linney and Zh. Byuffon promoted. Linney («System of the nature», 1735) for the first time pointed to position of the person in fauna, having placed it in a class of mammals, group of primacies as a part of a sort and a type of Homo sapiens. Byuffon («Natural history of animals») studied also features of growth of a human body, influence of the environment on an organism and some anomalies of development of the person. A turning point in development And. issue of books of Ch. Darvin «The origin of species by natural selection» was (1859) and «An origin of the person and sexual selection» (1871), and also the organization (at the initiative of P. Brock) the Parisian anthropological society (1859).
To formation And. at the end of 19 and the beginning of 20 century profound development of theory of evolution and development of genetics promoted. Along with anthropogenesis and ethnic And. the attention began to be paid also to morphology of the person. Progress of the last direction was defined by works of biometric school of W. R. Pierson — the creator of methods of variation statistics.
From the foreign scientists having big merits in development And., it should be noted: Martin (Germany) who developed scientific fundamentals of anthropometry and issued the guide to anthropology; To A. Hrdliöka — the Czech on a nationality working in the USA, the founder and the first editor of «The American magazine on physical anthropology»; Valois — the modern French anthropologist, the author of the system of classification accepted abroad And., etc.
Formation And. as sciences in Russia should be carried to 1864 when in Moscow anthropological department «Society of fans of natural sciences» was open. In 1880 at the initiative of A. P. Bogdanov at the Moscow university the Russia's first course A began to be given., however the department A organized then. it was soon closed. Again training of anthropologists at the Moscow university began only in 1907 at department of geography. After Great October socialist revolution (1919) in MSU the independent department A was founded.
Formation And. as university discipline it is connected with A. P. Bogdanov and D. N. Anuchin's names. A. P. Bogdanov studied an origin of the Russian people according to a kraniometriya (see). Evolution of a shape of a skull of the Russian population in the direction of a brakhikefalization is established to them and by that ideas of an invariance of size of the cranial index in the absence of a metisation are shaken. D. N. Anuchin studied geographical variations of length of a body of adult population of Russia and analyzed growth factors of a body. In 1869 Society of scientists in Kazan where P. F acted as the organizer of anthropological researches was founded. Lesgaft, studying morphology of separate body organs of the person, and also the factors defining their morphological variability.
To development And. in Russia also works K promoted. M. Ber who developed the measuring technique and descriptions of a skull and executed a number of kraniologichesky researches. D. N. Zernov entered data on individual variability of macroscopic structures of a brain in science.
Physical development of broad masses of the population was studied by F. F. Erisman. The court is a lot of forces to creation. - honey. And. gave P. A. Minakov (still did not lose the importance of his work on canities of hair and a shape of nails).
Big contribution to development And. (especially in ethnic And.) brought H. N. Miklukho-Maclay.
Anthropology during the Soviet period
Development And. the USSR divides usually into three stages. The first of them is connected with accumulation of the actual material (the 20th years). At the second stage of history Soviet And. (the 30th years) along with collecting anthropological materials theoretical processing them on the basis of Marxist-Leninist methodology was carried out. This time of resolute fight against the racism (see) which turned from the pseudoscientific theory into ideology of ruling circles of fascist Italy and Hitlerite Germany.
The victory over fascism marks the beginning of the latest stage of development of the Soviet A. Rastet number of anthropological institutions, the direct connection of Ampere-second medicine amplifies. The big contribution to development of anthropology to the Soviet period was made by V. V. Bunak, V. V. Ginzburg, G.F. Debets, M. G. Levin, M. F. Nesturkh, L. V. Oshanin, Ya. Ya. Raginsky, V. P. Yakimov.
In a crust, time the main centers of anthropological researches are:
1. Nauch. - issled. institute and Museum of anthropology of D. N. Anuchin Lomonosov Moscow State University. All main problems are studied And.; the important place is taken by works on anthropological standardization of industrial products.
2. Department of anthropology Lomonosov Moscow State University. The staff of department develops all main sections A.
3. Sector of anthropology Ying-that ethnographies of Academy of Sciences of the USSR of H. N. Miklukho-Maclay. The sector has the Leningrad branch at Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography. Main directions of researches: questions ethnic And., paleoanthropology, anthropogenesis and anthropogenetics.
4. Nauch. - issled. in-t of medical genetics of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (Moscow) where questions of anthropogenetics are developed.
5. Nauch. - issled. in-t of experimental pathology and therapy of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (Sukhumi). The biology and pathology of primacies are studied.
6. Anthropological offices or departments at scientific research institute of a historical and ethnographic profile of academies of Sciences of federal republics — Ukraine, Belarus, Armenia, Georgia, Estonia, Latvia, the Central Asian republics and Kazakhstan. Researches are devoted to ethnogenesis of the people of the USSR.
7. Nauch. - issled. in-you physiology of children and teenagers of NPA of the USSR (Moscow), hygiene of children and teenagers of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (Moscow) and gerontology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (Kiev). Various aspects of age human biology are investigated.
8. Departments of hygiene of children and teenagers of medical institutes and relevant departments of scientific research institute of epidemiology, microbiology and hygiene of the Ministries of Health of federal republics. Patterns of growth and development of an organism are studied.
Researches on And. are conducted also by departments of normal anatomy of the 1st Moscow, the 1st Leningrad, Saratov, Irkutsk and other medical institutes.
Value of anthropology for medicine
Is not present such industries of medical science which directly or indirectly would not be connected with anthropology. And., in turn, widely uses shots of medics for carrying out scientific research in the area A., confirming thereby a thought of one of founders of the Russian anthropology of D. N. Anuchin: doctors are, undoubtedly, the most competent observers for this purpose. At the same time communication of medicine with And. increased the general-theoretical level of all medicine; 100 years ago And. P. Bogdanov specified that the anthropology supplements an unilaterality of medicine and promotes the integral philosophical scientific view to that the physician from the scientist-mechanic, «podchinivayushchy patches and breakdowns in an organism», more and more rose to the level of the scientific researcher of the human race in its normal and pathological changes. The slogan which gained recognition at front lines "doctors of that time — to treat not a disease, and the patient — undoubtedly was result of penetration into clinic of the anthropological ideas.
At a boundary of 20 century in the article «Value of Anthropology in Medicine» P. A. Minakov, having noted undoubted progress in studying of pathogenic factors of the environment — «the external reasons of diseases», specified that doctors studied the person very few. In his opinion, anthropology, representing natural history of mankind, is the discipline generalizing many important departments of medicine and considerably expanding a circle of our information about the person.
Value of contacts And. and medicine it was repeatedly discussed in the press. V. V. Ginzburg (1963) specifies succession of the purposes of these sciences: anthropological studying of a human body is as if evolutionary medicine and aims at definition of ways of its improvement and improvement of further development». In November, 1966 the special symposium of Czechoslovak anthropological society was devoted to use of anthropological data in medicine.
And. develops standards of the sizes of a body and its parts for otdel ny ethnic, territorial, constitutional, age and sex and professional groups of the population. Taking into account the phenomenon accelerations (see) these standards shall be exposed to periodic review (in 5 — 10 years). In a crust, time standards such are created for the sizes of a body, terms of puberty, a skeletogeny and teeth.
Increase in accuracy of examination of age in court. - the medical and clinical purposes demands the accounting of hereditary influences and, as a first approximation, the sizes of a body of parents. Scales of length of a body of children taking into account hereditary influences are developed by Tanner (J. M of Tanner, 1970). For the population of ChSSR (Brno) of Boukhalov and Gerilovov (M. of Bouchalovä, A. Gerylovovä, 1970) method of the regression analysis the formulas estimating length of a body of children on length of a body of parents made. For example, for 5-year-old children these formulas have the following appearance: z1 = 0,290x + 0,169y+35,007, z2 = 0,252x + 0,208y + 33,067, where z1 and z2 — length of a body of boys and girls respectively, x and y — length of a body of mother and father respectively (all sizes in centimeters).
Penetration of anthropological methods of a research into occupational health and gerontology promoted development of anthropometrical standards for adult population of some regions of the USSR.
The big contribution to development of dimensional typology of adult population was made by staff of scientific research institute and Museum of anthropology of D. N. Anuchin and department of anthropology Lomonosov Moscow State University (P. I. Zenkevich; P. N. Bashkirov, etc.). Studying of variability of morphological features allowed to develop standards of age determination of adults for degree of a sinostozirovaniye of cranial seams [Todd and Lyon (W. Todd, D. Lyon); Nekrasova (O. Necrasov)], to ossification of cartilages of a throat (S. B. Seligman), signs of aging of phalanxes of a brush (D. G. Rokhlin) and microscopic structures of bones (Yu. M. Gladyshev).
Anthropological data are used at sex determination of the person and length of his body by the sizes of a skeleton (V. V. Pashkova, I.-V. Y. Naynis), and achievements of anthropogenetics — during the definition of a sex of spots of blood and soft tissues on kariologichesky features. The method of plastic anthropological facial reconstruction on a skull offered by M. M. Gerasimov is used in forensic medicine and criminalistics for an identification of the personality on a skull.
Bonds of Ampere-second clinical medicine multilaterally. Problem solving of plastic surgery and fight against burns are promoted by anthropological methods of assessment of surface area of a body or its separate parts. In parallel with implementation in clinical practice of methods of tool diagnosis (rentgeno-, kardio-and an angiography, ultrasonic echolocation of soft tissues, endoscopy, etc.) there was a creation of normative characteristics of the sizes and position of bodies with the description of their morfo-functional features.
Task And. also development of formulas for intravital assessment of body composition, and also volume and weight of internals on indirect indicators is. The morphometric direction in a splanchnology (see) and a myology (see) gained development in works of the Polish anatomist Lota (E. Loth).
The modern physiological and biochemical directions in And. supply clinical physicians with standards of physiological functions and biochemical indicators that it is extremely important for diagnosis of morbid conditions, and also clarification of some controversial issues of acceleration: whether their manifestations are limited only to morphological features of an organism or are followed by a povzrosleniye of physiological systems of an organism etc.
In medicine widely use possibilities of quantitative assessment of symptoms of a disease (or extents of painful defeat) for the analysis of age, sexual, constitutional and other features of pathological process or the analysis of interrelation of the components making it. The doctors applying methods of variation statistics during the studying of variability of pathological signs often are spontaneously involved in a circle of the problems which are usually solved medical And. Researches of a problem of atherosclerosis and its final manifestation — an atherocalcinosis can be an example of rational anthropological approach in medicine.
By a planimetric method on instained preparations of an aorta of residents of Nalchik G. G. Avtandilov (1970) noted increase in the area of the sites of an intima struck with an atherocalcinosis with age, formulated the probabilistic theory of developing of atherosclerosis and offered its mathematical model.
The complex medico-anthropological problem is made by the constitution of the person (see the Constitution). Anatomic bases of this problem are widely developed by V. N. Shevkunenko and his followers in respect of studying of extreme forms of variability and creation of standard anthropotomy. Somatologichesky criteria for evaluation of the constitution are developed for adult men by V. V. Bunak, for women — I. Golantom and for children and teenagers — A. D. Ostrovsky and V. G. Shtefko.
Communication of a constitution of the person with spread of some diseases is of interest to medicine. E.g., osteoporosis (see) strikes people with the lowered adipopexis more often; on the contrary, the deforming arthrosis is observed at people of brachymorphic proportions and with the increased adipopexis more often. Communication of a constitution with mental diseases is also quite clear. Patients with schizophrenia have quite often dolikhomorfny proportions of a body and the lowered adipopexis. Maniac-depressive psychosis is observed more often at people of brachymorphic proportions and with the increased adipopexis.
The place of anthropology in medical education
In system of the higher medical education in our country an independent course A. it is not provided, however the general questions of anthropogenesis and anthropogenetics are considered it is aware of human biology with fundamentals of the general genetics, questions of morphology of the person — it is aware of normal anatomy, methods of anthropometry and variation statistics are lit respectively in courses of hygiene of children and teenagers, and also during the studying of the organization of health care and social hygiene, use of anthropological data at examination of age, sex or identification of the personality is considered it is aware of forensic medicine, the problem of the constitution — is aware of pathological physiology etc.
Studying And. promotes education of irreconcilability to the ideas of racism and national exclusiveness. In medicine anthropological approach teaches studying of the person in all variety of its hereditary specificity and ecological features.
Science foundations, conferences, congresses
to Organizational association of anthropologists and ethnographers serves the international union of anthropological and ethnographic sciences. In a number of the countries of the world there are national anthropological societies. In the USSR the anthropological section of the Moscow Society of Testers of the Nature (MSTN) functions. Specialists in morphology of the person are members of All-Union science foundation of anatomists, histologists and embryologists (VNOAGE). At Scientific council of Academy of Sciences of the USSR on complex problems of human physiology and animals the problem commission on anthropology is created.
The international congresses of anthropological and ethnographic sciences (MKAEN) are convoked with frequency in five years (earlier — four years): The I MKAEN — 1934 (London), II — 1938 (Copenhagen), III — 1948 (Brussels), IV — 1952 (Vienna), V — 1956 (Philadelphia), VI — 1960 (Paris), VII — 1964 (Moscow), VIII — 1968 (Tokyo), IX — 1973 (Chicago).
Questions of morphology of the person are discussed on the international congresses of anatomists, and in our country — at all-Union congresses of anatomists, histologists and embryologists.
Bibliography: Anuchin D. N. About tasks and methods of anthropology, the Russian antro-floor. zhurn., t. 3, No. 1, page 62, 1902; P. N. Bashkirs. The doctrine about physical development of the person, M., 1962, bibliogr.; Bunak V. V., Nesturkh M. F. both P about and N with to and y Ya. Ya. Antropologiya, M., 1941; Bystrov A. P. Last, real, future person, D., 1957, bibliogr.; Questions of anthropology, under the editorship of V. P. Yakimov, M., 1970, bibliogr.; Ginzburg V. V. Elements of anthropology for physicians, JI., 1963, bibliogr.; Levin M. G. Sketches on stories of anthropology in Russia, M., 1960, bibliogr.; Minakov P. A. Value of anthropology in medicine, Russian antropol. zhurn., t. 3, No. 1, page 89, 1902; Nesturkh M. F. Primatology and anthropogenesis (Monkeys, semi-monkeys and origin of the person), M., 1960, bibliogr.; A monkey — an object of medical and biological experiments, under the editorship of B. A. Lapin, Sukhumi, 1963, bibliogr.; Pashkova V. of II. Sketches of medicolegal osteology, M., 1963, bibliogr.; Roginsky Ya. Ya. and Levin M. G. Fundamentals of anthropology, M., 1955, bibliogr.; D z i eri ykraJ-Rogalski T. 1 Modrzewska K. Zarys antropologii dla medyköw, Warszawa, 1955; Kadanov D. and Mutafov of S. Osno-vni of a vjprosa on a meditsinskat anthropology, Sjvr. medical, book 2, page 23, 1964, bibliogr.; Loth E. Anthropologie des parties molles (muscles, intestins, vais-seaux, nerfs p6riph6riques), P., 1931, bibliogr.; Martin R. u. Sailer K. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie, Bd 1 — 3, Stuttgart, 1956 — 1962; Montagu A. Anthropology and medical education, J. Amer. med. Ass., v. 183, p. 577, 1963; Olivier G. Anatomie anthropologique, P., 1965; Stloukal M. Symposion über die Anwendung der Anthropologie in der Medizin, Anthropologie, Bd 5, S. 64, 1967.
B. A. Nikitin