ANIMAL-DRAWN MEDICAL AMBULANCE — vehicles for transportation of wounded and patients with use of draft strength of animals (horses, mules, deer, dogs, etc.).
In the 18 and first half of 19 century transportation of wounded and patients in armies of most the European states was carried out by G. page of t. on horse a dignity. vehicles. In the Russian army regular a dignity. vehicles were entered in 1731. From the second half of 19 century with development. - and then and the motor transport (the beginning of 20 century) Of page of t. began to use for transportation of wounded and patients only on rather short distances.
During the Soviet-Finnish military conflict (1939 — 1940) and the Great Patriotic War of G. of page of t. it was widely applied to evacuation of wounded and patients to a regiment and a division, and in districts of Far North and a woody moorland was the main type of transport applied to these purposes.
In 1941 in armies and on fronts the separate horse and sanitary companies (SHSC), groups of sanitary and sledge teams of dogs (OSNU), the transports of deer (TD) — G.'s divisions of page of t were created., which were given to medical service of regiments and divisions for evacuation of wounded from the battlefield and their evacuation in the army rear area. Horse dignity. companies were used also for evacuation of wounded on the army ways of evacuation and for their interhospital transportation in the developed hospital bases.
OKSR had on equipment from 4S to 72 special a dignity. vehicles (two-wheeled carts), and in the winter dignity. sledge with an oven (fig. 1 and 2). At a lack of these means the adapted economic or country vehicles, sledge-rozvalni were used. In the conditions excluding wheel G. of page of t., the improvised one-horse drag harrows were applied.
In OSNU there were on average 130 — 140 dogsleds. Wounded on short distances (to 20 km) were transported by a team from 4 dogs on sledge, court shoes drag harrows or ski nosilochnykh installations, and in the summer on a dignity. four-wheel carts. With increase in distance of evacuation the quantity of dogs in a team increased to 6 — 8, and during the performance of special tasks at distance of 100 km and more — to 10 — 12. Through each 10 km rest for 10 - 15 min., and after the long march (to 80 km) — rest not less than 8 — 10 hour was provided to dogs.
Incorporated THAT to 120 cargo and 12 automobile sledge western (pechersky) or east (Yakut, Chukchi) like (fig. 3). In each sledge harnessed 3 deer. In post-war time were offered a dignity. sledge with a fixed body and a two-layer tent from dense fabric. THAT in days of the Great Patriotic War were used only in districts of Far North.
In transit wounded 3 — 4 teams combined; on the first (automobile) sledge there were a medic and the horseman who managed deer. In each hour rest for 10 — 15 min. is provided to deer. Daily transition to 50 — 60 km. Through 250 — 300 km deer had to have a rest 3 — 4 days.
At conducting combat operations by the modern armies equipped with high-passable appliances including and special a dignity. by cars, G. of page of t. will not find broad application. However at action of troops on the hardly accessible area (in mountains, woody and marshy districts) it can be used for collecting and evacuation of wounded from the battlefield in this connection experience of use of G. of page of t. during the Great Patriotic War does not lose the value.
A. P. Stepanov.