From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ALPHA THERAPY — the type of radiation therapy based on use of alpha radiation. At And. - t. apply some rather short-lived radioisotopes (half-life no more than 3,8 days) which are letting out in total alpha beta and gamma radiation. In view of the fact that falls to the share of alpha particles apprx. 90% of all radiation energy absorbed by an organism at treatment, this type of radiation therapy received the name A. - t. Long-living alpha izlu - the hoping isotopes — polonium etc. — for And. - t. do not apply because of danger of hit them in an organism of patients and service personnel.

To number of features And. - t., distinguishing it from other types of radiation therapy (see), belong: small penetration of the main source of radiation — alpha particles, an originality of primary mechanism of their biological effect (the big linear density of ionization, education in fabrics of free oxygen and some strong oxidizers), big, than at beta, gamma and x-ray emission, the relative biological efficiency (RBE).

Radiation at And. - t. can be the general and local, outside and internal. Apply so-called radonic procedures at which radiators are radon to general irradiation and its temporary affiliated products (see. Radon ). Are among radonic procedures: the general and local bathtubs from radon water (see), air-radon bathtubs, drink of radon water, inhalation of the air enriched with radon, gynecologic irrigations and microclysters from radon water. The medical effect is shown at very small absorbed doses of radiation (an order of units and the tenth shares of rem — a biological equivalent I am glad). Apply radonic procedures in resorts with natural radon waters or natural radono-emanatoriums — the big underground rooms containing air with the increased concentration of radon (such resorts in the USSR — Belokurikha, Pyatigorsk, Uvilda, Tsqaltubo, etc., in Czechoslovakia — Yakhimov, in Austria — Gastein, in GDR — Brambakh, in Italy — Luriziya, etc., in Japan — Masutomi, etc.), and also a pas some non-radioactive resorts (Sochi, Yessentuki, Karlova In ares, etc.) and in extra resort conditions — in sanatoria, hospitals etc. In these cases special solutions of radium are sources of radon . Prepare strong solutions of radon or directly in medical institution (in the certain room), or in specialized radonic laboratories (are available in Moscow, Moscow area, Sochi, Odessa etc.), from where ready solutions of radon carry on many medical institutions.

Radonic procedures have diverse effect on an organism. They well influence functions of c. N of page, normalizing the broken processes of excitement and braking, regulate functions of the autonomic nervous system and closed glands, have noticeable sedative and analgesic effect, stimulate many compensatory and adaptive reactions of an organism. Radonic procedures are shown at a number of diseases of peripheral nervous, cardiovascular systems, bodies of the movement, at gynecologic diseases, endocrine frustration, disbolism, chronic nonspecific diseases, etc. Are contraindicated at tuberculosis, malignant new growths, diseases of a respiratory organs, pregnancy, some diseases of blood.

Local radiation at And. - t. carry out by imposing on certain sites of skin of radioactive applicators (gauze bandages about 500 cm in size 2 ). On applicators by means of special installation besiege the affiliated products of thoron (the greatest half-life 10,6 hours) received from emaniruyushchy, i.e. easily emitting thoron drug of radio thorium . Radioactive bandages with affiliated products of thoron (see) have the expressed soothing and antiinflammatory effect, quickly eliminate an itch. Apply them at the diseases which are followed by pain (radiculitis, neuritis, polyarthritis, stump neuralgias) and also at some skin diseases (chronic focal eczema, neurodermatitis).

At And. - t. it is necessary to carry out defined a dignity. requirements for ensuring radiation safety of service personnel (see. Isotopes , radioactive, Antiactinic protection ).

E. S. Shchepotyeva.