From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ALLOPLASTY (Greek allos — another and plastikz — formation) — the method of plastic surgery using materials of not biological origin for recovery of bodies and tissues of the person (metals, paraffin, wax, organic glass, plasts, synfils, products from them, etc.).

Fig. 1. Various types of corrugated prostheses from a Dacron for substitution of vessels
Fig. 2. Prosthesis of a hip joint of a design of K. M. Sivash

In modern foreign literature the term «alloplasty» is meant as change of homologous fabrics (see. Homoplasty ), and change of heterological fabrics is called xenoplasty (see. Heteroplasty ).

At early stages of development of surgery And. it was applied almost only for the purpose of elimination of the cosmetic defects which resulted from an injury, a disease or a malformation (e.g., a parafinoplastika of a nose).

Since the end of the first half of 20 century the increasing value gets alloplastichesky recovery of function of the damaged anatomic educations with use of internal prostheses of functional purpose. Such prostheses can be very difficult — artificial valves of heart (see. Prosthetics of valves of heart ), artificial joints (see. Prosthetics ), artificial vessels (see. Blood vessels , operations), etc. Prostheses can be entered into body tissues and be fixed on site at the expense of the bed created by the surgeon (the elementary cosmetic prostheses, e.g. the prosthesis correcting a shape of a nose.) The prostheses entering functional systems should be strengthened, connecting in a whole with body or its fragment, way of a vshivaniye (prostheses of valves of heart, prostheses of vessels, etc.), method of gluing by special glues (bones, joint surfaces), method of ultrasonic welding (bone), by an attachment screws, a wire, nails (bones, joints, etc.), method of individual adjustment (prostheses for closing of defects of a skull).

For simplification of implantation of prostheses from alloplastichesky materials they are often done porous or corrugated [e.g., vascular prostheses of a Dacron (fig. 1) or teflon], or a certain form [e.g., the prostheses of joints of a hip created by K. M. Sivash (fig. 2)], edges promotes their fixing. For And. select the materials of sufficient durability steady against corrosion, harmless to an organism (non-toxic, not sensibilizing, not cancerogenic) and the implantations which are not causing rough inflammatory reaction of fabrics in the place. Stainless steel, tantalum, nylon, a Dacron, teflon, silicone rubber, ftoroplast are most often used plastic (AKR-7, AKR-12).

Success And. in many respects depends on a condition of fabrics and blood circulation in the place of implantation of a prosthesis and aseptichnost of the performed operation. Successfully implanted alloproteza can fail owing to wear (valves, joints) and they should be replaced new (sometimes repeatedly). It is in certain cases long the functioning prosthesis it can be torn away owing to inflammatory reaction of body tissues, an injury or the outbreak of a purulent infection.

Bibliography: De Bequey M. E., etc. Surgery of an aorta and large peripheral arteries, the lane with English, M., 1960; Kalnberz V. K., etc. Homotransplantation of bones and joints, in book: Day of owls. surgeries, 24 kongr. Mezhdunarodn. islands hir., 57, M., 1971; Revzin I. I. Use of plastic in a denture and maxillofacial orthopedics, M., 1955; Alexander J. Good R. Immunobiology for surgeons, Philadelphia a. o., 1970.

V. A. Sakharov.