From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ALL-RUSSIAN TERRITORIAL AND CITY UNIONS (All-Russian territorial union of the help to sick and wounded soldiers and All-Russian union of the cities) — the public bourgeois and landowner organizations created in 1914. The territorial union was founded on July 30, 1914 on the All-Russian congress of representatives of authorized provincial zemstvoes, the Union of the cities — on August 8 — 9, 1914 at the I All-Russian congress of the cities. The unions on the functions were close and worked in close contact. A source of funds of the unions were government subsidies, allocations of the local organizations of zemstvoes and the cities and a donation of individuals.

Since the beginning of war the unions were engaged in the organization of the hospital help to sick and wounded soldiers in rear regions of the country. Actually the unions were subsidiary institutions of Military and sanitary department and society of the Red Cross.

With expansion of military operations it became clear that Military and sanitary department and the Red Cross do not possess sufficient number to lay down. institutions and vehicles. The government was forced to resort to the help of the Territorial and City unions, activity to-rykh extended also to front regions of the country. Along with Military and sanitary department and the Red Cross they began to deal with issues of evacuation and treatment of wounded, the equipment of hospitals, a dignity. trains, medical and nutritious and bath-and-laundry groups, the help to refugees and prisoners of war, the organization of warehouses for linen, supply of troops with regimentals, etc. For performance of these functions in the unions departments were created: medical and sanitary, evacuation, on preparation of medicines and dressing means, pieces of the hospital equipment a dignity. trains, help to refugees and some other.

The aspiration of many progressive doctors to reduce the disasters and deprivations caused by war, to prevent epidemics attracted them in these organizations. Understanding serious danger of epidemics in wartime, the advanced doctors were initiators of statement of questions of need of urgent measures for their prevention. Most sharply the question of measures for fight against epidemics was raised by Medical and sanitary department of the Territorial union, at Krom special council and bureau was created. The general management of council and bureau was entrusted to one of organizers a dignity. - bacterial, affairs in Russia to P. N. Diatroptov, questions of fight against infectious diseases — to L. A. Tarasevich, preparation of medical shots — to E. I. Martsinovsky, entered into structure of council and bureau representatives a dignity. the organizations of the Moscow provincial zemstvo, the doctor Bolshevik 3 was the secretary of council. P. Solovyov. In the City union a dignity. the department was created only in April, 1915 in connection with growth of epidemics; the doctor N. F. Nikolayevsky was his head, the non-staff consultant A. N. Sysinonim Active part in work of the unions was taken by D. K. Zabolotny, G. V. Hlopin, K. V. Karaffa-Korbut (1878 — 1935), etc. For approval of plans of activity of the medical organizations of the Territorial and City unions in February, 1915 under the chairmanship of P. N. Diatroptov the Joint medical and sanitary council was created. Medical - a dignity. the organizations of the unions developed the rational plan of fight against epidemics at the front and in the back.

Questions of fight against infectious diseases were discussed also at special meetings of bacteriologists and representatives of the medical and sanitary organizations, at congresses of the Territorial and City unions, at the integrated meeting of their representatives. At all congresses and meetings doctors made the demand to concentrate matter of fight against epidemics in the uniform center.

A serious hindrance in implementation protivoepid, actions was the bureaucratic machinery of government making difficulties in receiving means and bringing disorganization to fight against epidemics. Dignity. and protivoepid, actions were carried out with big delay. Absence uniform protivoepid, military service, counteraction to rational undertakings of doctors from government agencies, mass evacuation to the back of prisoners of war without sanitary cleaning, fleeing gave the country to catastrophic a dignity. - epid. to a state on the eve of Great October socialist revolution.

After defeat of imperial troops in summer of 1915 the unions participated in mobilization of the industry for improvement of supply of army with weapon and equipment, having created for this purpose the joint committee — Zemgor. In 1915 — 1916 oppositional moods of the liberal bourgeoisie, including and the leading figures of the Territorial and City unions amplified. However up to the February bourgeois-democratic revolution of 1917 they aimed to finish by formation of «the responsible ministry» war «to the bitter end» and to prevent proletarian revolution. After the February revolution the nek-ry leading figures of the unions were a part of bourgeois provisional government and hostilely met October socialist revolution, participating in sabotage and counterrevolutionary plots. The advanced doctors who were a part of the Territorial and City unions (D. K. Zabolotny, P. N. Diatroptov, L. A. Tarasevich, 3. P. Solovyov, A. N. Sysin, etc.), took active part in the organization Narkomzdrava and in construction of the Soviet health care.

4 on January (17), 1918 the main committees of the unions were abolished by the decree of SNK. Institutions and property of medical departments of the unions were transferred to the jurisdiction Narkomzdrava.

Bibliography: Lotova E. I. The territorial Union and the Union of the cities in fight against epidemics in the years of World War I (1914 — 1918), in book: Sketches of history of Russian societies, medical, under the editorship of P. I. Nalyyu, page 111, M., 1965; Lotova E. I. and Idelchik X. I. Fight against infectious diseases in the USSR 1917 — 1967, page 41, M., 1967; Pogrebinsky A. P. To history of the unions of zemstvoes and the cities in the years of imperialistic war, in book: Istorich. notes, t. 12, page 39, M., 1941.

E. I. Lotova.