ALKYLATION — process of introduction of a monovalent radical (rest) of hydrocarbons of a fatty series (alkyls), e.g. SN 3 , With 2 N 5 etc., in a molecule of organic compound. And. it is carried out by means of reactions of two types — substitution reactions and addition reactions. Example And., going as substitution reaction, exchange reaction of hydrogen on alkyl can serve:
where the dotted line led round the mutually replaced groups. Example And., going on the second mechanism, serves And. benzene ethylene:
Usually alkiliruyushchpm agents can be haloid ethers, dialkylsulfates, alkenes, alcohols, etc. Catalysts of reaction And. hl serve. obr. inorganic compounds of type: H 2 SO 4 , HCl, AlCl 3 , BF 3 etc. And. it is widely applied in laboratory practice, e.g. at modification and ingibirovashsh enzymes, and also in the industry, including in synthesis of a number of pharmaceuticals (synthesis of derivatives barbituric to - you, ethyl ether of morphine and other connections). Processes And. take place and in a live organism, e.g. methylation (see), or transfer of the SN group 3 from one amino acid on another, happening to participation of one of irreplaceable amino acids — methionine (see).
Bibliography: Robert-Nika M. Ts. Himiya and technology of chemical pharmaceuticals, page 186, M., 1959.
M. A. Cheltsova.