From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES are characterized by existence in their composition of alcohol. On the content of alcohol A. N are subdivided on strong, average fortress and low alcohol.

Hard alcoholic beverages

Hard alcoholic beverages — vodka, cognacs, rum, whisky, gin, strong liqueurs, bitters.

Vodka — the mix of ethyl rectified alcohol with soft water processed by active coal and filtered. Fortress of vodka happens to 40, 50 and 56 about. %. Vodka belongs to the most cleared And. item: content of fusel oils (see) and does not exceed aldehydes 0,003 about. % (both indicators in terms of 1 l of anhydrous alcohol). Vodka contains the minimum quantity (traces) of methyl alcohol and maintains test with fuksinsernisty to - that.

Cognacs produce from the alcohol received by distillation of preferential white grape wines. Cognac alcohol is maintained within several years in oak barrels then he develops a taste, characteristic of cognac, aroma and coloring. After the term of endurance cognac alcohol is mixed with a distilled water and lead up the fortress of cognac to 40 — 57 about. %. A sugar content in cognac — from 0,7 to 2,5%. In cognac the content of methyl alcohol no more than 0,1% for 100 ml is allowed. Depending on quality and terms of endurance cognacs divide on ordinary, branded and collection.

Rum prepare on the basis of the alcohol received by distillation of the overfermented solution of treacle of a sugarcane. Fortress of rum 70 — 77 about. %.

In production of strong liqueurs and bitters sugar, fruit and berry fruit drinks, spicy seeds, herbs and roots infusions, various essences, aromatic substances and dyes are widely used. Fortress of alcoholic beverage products is established depending on a type of drink and fluctuates ranging from 20 to 40 about. %.

To strong And. the N belongs illegally produced in house conditions moonshine. Moonshine contains harmful impurity: fusel oils — 0,1 — 0,9 about. %, aldehydes — 0,004 — 0,02 about. %, furfural — 0,001 — 0,01 about. %, etc. In the USSR production of moonshine is punished as criminal offense.

To alcoholic beverages of average fortress belong grape and fruit and berry wine (see), and also fruit liqueurs and some dessert drinks having the strength of 9-20%.

Low alcohol drinks

the Main type of low alcohol drinks is beer, a cut prepare from the must received from barley malt with addition of hop. After cooking and cooling add special races of beer yeast to a must; it is exposed to fermentation (7 — 10 days), and then is maintained within 20 — 90 days at t ° from 0 to +2 °.

On physical. - to chemical indicators beer shall meet the following requirements (tab).

The pasteurized beer has big firmness (30 days without stabilizers and 90 days using stabilizers).

Old national drinks belong to low alcohol drinks — home brew and bouza. Braga is prepared by fermentation of a must from mix of rye and barley malt with addition 5 — 9% of sugar and hop. Content of alcohol in home brew of 1,5 — 3%. The bouza is prepared from millet or buckwheat and oatmeal on the flow diagram accepted for preparation of beer, but without addition of hop. Strength of a bouza is 4 — 6% of alcohol.

The nature of effect of alcoholic beverages is defined on an organism by the fortress and quantity entered And. N.

It is considered that 500 ml of 96% of alcohol (see) is a lethal dose. And. N exert extremely adverse effect on an organism; the attention and self-checking decreases; the short-term excitement noted in initial stages is replaced by oppression of c. N of page. Oppression of a vasomotor center involves increase in a thermolysis owing to expansion of skin vessels and big inflow of blood to them, oppression of the center of heat generation promotes fall of temperature of a body even more that can lead to overcooling of an organism and development of freezing injuries at intoxication. And. N negatively influence working capacity: the increase in an animal force noted in the beginning quickly enough is replaced by its falling, at the same time the sum of the performed work appears below capacity production of work. And. N oppress also cerebration: productivity of mental work and its quality fall. Besides, use And. by N it is always connected with danger of accustoming to alcohol (see. Alcoholism , alcoholism ).

Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 2, page 277, M., 1971; Merchandizing of foodstuff, under the editorship of F. V. Tserevitinov, t. 3, M., 1949.

K. S. Petrovsky.