From Big Medical Encyclopedia

AKTOGRAFIYA (Latin actus — the movement + Greek graphu — I write, I write down) — a technique of registration of a physical activity of an animal of a pla of the person for quantitative assessment of its time histories.

For the first time measurements of a physical activity of an animal were taken by Stewart (S. S. Stewart, 1898) by means of a cell with a squirrel wheel, range of speeds to-rogo could be counted.

And. does not break normal life activity of an organism therefore it is widely used for identification of day-night and seasonal biological rhythms and in ecological researches. In clinic And. apply to diagnosis of disturbances of a night dream, detection of features of course of a bed rest, etc. So, e.g., a research of dynamics of a dream at healthy people with the help And. revealed that the periods of a quiet dream make from 51 to 70% of the entire period of a dream, and the largest duration of one period of a quiet dream makes 30 — 60 min. Normal the person lies not movably no more than 11/2 hour. Therefore in order to avoid decubituses of seriously ill patients it is necessary to turn in a bed at least in 30 min.

At an arterial hypertension, according to data And., duration and depth of a night dream decrease; also the periods of backfilling and awakening change. With the help And. features of a day dream at workers after work during a night shift were revealed.

And. is a technique of high sensitivity and rather just allows to find action on an organism of extremely weak irritants.

Fig. 1. Aktograf: 1 — the caterpillar tube which is tied up under a spring grid of a bed; 2 — a drum of a daily barograph with paper; 3 — Marey's capsule with the limiterm of height of raising of a membrane; 4 — a pischik; 5 — a connecting rubber tube

For And. use the special device — an aktograf (fig. 1). It consists from perceiving p registering parts. The perceiving part — mechanical oscillatory system (a cell with the mobile bottom strengthened on springs; a spring grid of a bed of the patient, etc.), easily reacting to the movements of an object. It is connected to the converter of mechanical oscillations in fluctuations of pressure of air (Marey's capsule, a caterpillar tube or a blind piece of a wide tube from dense rubber, etc.). The converter of mechanical oscillations connects a tube to the registering part of an aktograf (Marey's capsule with a pischik). The actogram most often registers on the paper moved with a kimograf (see. Kimografiya ).

Fig. 2. The actogram of the healthy person during a night dream

As the registering part the kimograf with the daily plant usually is used (e.g., from a meteorological barograph). The actogram (fig. 2) allows to estimate total physical activity of the studied object for a certain interval of time. Time of activity of the person or an animal count according to the actogram for 5-, 15-or 60-minute intervals.

In Zeypelt's aktograf — Wolff as the sensor the microphone perceiving noise of movement of an animal on a bottom of a cell is used.

In addition to simple aktograf, special differential aktograf by means of which along with a total physical activity it is possible to register movements of an animal - in different departments of a cell or feature of behavior (the choice of food, water, etc.) are applied. In such aktograf strengthen several springing contacts or microswitches, each of which is connected to the power supply the electric power and to the electromagnetic otmetchik. The received actogram allows to judge the sequence of the choice of N of usage time an animal of one of feeding troughs, a certain site of a cell, etc. Differential And. use also in clinic, napr, for separate registration of the general activity of a body and movements of the head (A. K. Popov, 1954).

Fig. 3. A radio transmitter with frequency modulation of VHF of the bearing frequency (A) and the inertial mercury switch (B) for radio telemetry of the movement (scheme): 1 — an epoxy case covering; 2 — a beaker flask from stainless steel; 3 — a drop of mercury; 4 — the isolating washer; 5 — a corner between walls of two glasses (184 °); 6 — the inertial switch; M and N — terminals of the switch
Fig. 4. Aktometr (A) and his fastening on ispytuyemy (B): 1 — batteries of a pocket lamp; 2 — the pulse electromagnetic counter; 3 — wires; 4 — an insole with the contact located under a heel

In a crust. time for And. use radio telemetry with frequency modulation. In this case as the sensor for registration of the movements serves the inertial mercury microswitch which fastens together with a radio transmitter and the frequency modulator (fig. 3) on a body of the person or an animal. The registering part of such aktograf consists of the radio receiver, the demodulator, the electronic amplifier and the writing device. By means of Delgado's radio telemetry (J. The m of R. Delgado, 1965) within 30 days synchronously registered on one tape of the actogram of three monkeys who were in the general the open-air cage. It allowed to establish that a physical activity of each of monkeys is in direct dependence on activity of her neighbors after the open-air cage.

Sometimes the level of a physical activity is measured by means of aktometr — mechanical (e.g., pedometers) or electromagnetic pulse counters (fig. 4) which indications periodically read out or automatically photographed.

Bibliography: Alexandrov P. N., Chernukh A. M. and Yushchenko N. A. Daily differential aktograf, Stalemate. fiziol. and ekspery. ter., t. 6, No. 3, page 73, 1962; Biotelemetry, the lane with English, under the editorship of N. A. Bernstein, page 284, etc., M., 1965; Mosquitoes F. I., Zakharov L. V. and Lisovsky V. A. A day-night rhythm of physiological functions at the healthy and sick person, L., 1966, bibliogr.; Kushakovsky O. S. To a technique of automatic registration by an aktograf of a physical activity of patients, Zhurn. vyssh. nervn. deyateln. t. 4, century 1, page 137, 1954; Slonim A. D. Fundamentals of the general ecological physiology of mammals, M. — L., 1961, bibliy.

N. K. Saradzhev.