From Big Medical Encyclopedia

AKANTOTSEFALYOZA (acanthocephaloses; Greek akantha — a thorn + kephale — the head + - Usis) — helminthoses, the caused skrebnyam (prickly left). Activators A. belong to the class Acanthocephala (Rudolphi, 1808). A body of live helminths usually flat, during the fixing in alcohol and formalin it takes the form of the roller. The front end is extended in a proboscis, as a rule, armed kryuchyam. Akantotsefala of a razdelnopola; in a stage of puberty parasitize at vertebrate animals of all classes and occasionally at the person.

The main source of an invasion are animals — final owners skrebny (see). Infection of the person occurs at an accidental proglatyvaniye of the insects (bugs, cockroaches) who are intermediate owners of skrebny. At the person A. meet seldom. Are described moniliformoz and makrakantorinkhoz.

Fig. 1. Moniliformis moniliformis moniliformis: 1 — an adult female; 2 — a proboscis; 3 — egg; 4 — an akantella. Fig. 2. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: 1 — an adult female; 2 — a proboscis; 3 — egg

Moniliformoz. Activators — skrebn of Moniliformis moniliformis siciliensis (a synonym of Echinorhynchus moniliformis) and M. m. moniliformis. M. m. siciliensis (a male of 40 — 45 mm, a female 70 — 80 mm long; width of 1 — 1,5 mm) has the body narrowed in front with false necklace-shaped segmentation, the back end of a body smooth, on a proboscis of 14 longitudinal rows kryuchyev. Eggs size 0,085×0,045 of mm. In a stage of puberty parasitizes in intestines of a mouse and the garden sleepyhead. It is described at the person on the lake of Sicily. In experience of autoinfection of S. Calandruccio swallowed the larvae of helminth taken from a bug-chernotedki (Blaps mucronata). In 20 days the experimenter had a diarrhea and severe pains in a stomach. In 35 days in Calais eggs skrebnya were found. After reception of 8 g of radio extract of a men's fern departed 53 skrebnya and there occurred clinical recovery. M of m. moniliformis (a male 40 — 86 mm long, a female — 70 — 270 mm; width of 2 mm) has the body of a necklace-shaped form which is often twisted in a ring on a proboscis of 12 — 14 longitudinal rows kryuchyev, eggs of 0,109 in size — 0,137 × 0,057 — 0,063 mm (fig. 1). In a stage of puberty parasitizes in intestines of rodents, foxes, dogs, a polecat, some birds; in a stage of a larva (akantella) — at a cockroach of Periplaneta americana and a bug darkling beetles. Sakhba is described at the person in Sudan [J. Christhophersen, 1927], in the USSR (M. F. Mizgireva, 1962), on Madagascar [Dyulak, Ralaymikhoatra (P. Dulac, R. Ralaimihoatra), 1962], in Iran [(G. N of Sahba) et al., 1970]. Patients had abdominal pains, speeded up, sometimes with impurity of slime a chair, anorexia, abdominal distention, weakness, fever, an eosinophilic leukocytosis. Helminths departed after reception of radio extract of a men's fern. Makrakantorinkhoz. The activator — Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus («skreben-giant»). Male of 100 — 150 mm, female 300 — 650 mm long; a body of a spindle-shaped form with deep grooves; the proboscis is almost round, with six spiral rows kryuchyev. Eggs of 0,08 in size — 0,1 X 0,05 — 0,056 mm (fig. 2). In a stage of puberty parasitizes in intestines of pigs and some other mammals, in a stage of a larva — at may-bugs, etc. Gonsaga (G. Gonsaga, 1921) found eggs skrebnya in Calais the person in Brazil. M. R. Skrinnik, M. V. Likhotinskaya and O. M. Ocheret (1958) found a copy of this helminth in Calais of the patient after treatment of an ascaridosis sankafeny. At the patient within one and a half years the nausea and vomiting which disappeared later removals of Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus were observed. In Thailand at necropsy of the woman skreben it was found in intestines; hems after five healed ulcers and one fresh ulcer are found in an ileal gut, in to-ruyu the front end of a body of helminth was implemented.

Treatment — use of extract of a men's fern.

Prevention — fight with And. animals, destruction of harmful insects (cockroaches, etc.), observance of rules of personal hygiene.

Bibliography: The multivolume guide to microbiology, clinic and epidemiology of infectious diseases, under the editorship of N. N. Zhukov-Verezhnikov, t. 9, page 538, M., 1968; Petrochenko of V. I. Akantotsefala (skrebna) house and wildings, t. 1 — 2, M., 1956 — 1958, bibliogr.; Scriabin K. I. and Schultz R. E. S. Helminthoses of the person, the p. 2, page 242, M. — L., 1931; Sahba G. H., Arfaa F. Rastegar M. Human infection with Moniliformis dubius (Acanthocephala) (Meyer, 1932), Trans, roy. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., v. 64, p. 284, 1970.

N. N. Plotnikov.