AIR CONDITIONING — creation and automatic maintenance in the enclosed space, automobiles etc. of temperature, the relative humidity, purity, structure and speed of the movement of air optimum for health of people or conducting technological processes, operation of the equipment and devices.
Discomfortable conditions microclimate (see) and the adverse structure of the air environment can be led not only to the general easing of resistance of an organism, decrease in working capacity, but also to cause patol, the phenomena connected with disturbance of gas exchange, thermal control, etc. Therefore providing a comfortable microclimate is one of urgent problems of hygiene.
Need To. it is especially felt in districts century with hot climate where in most cases it is impossible means of usual artificial ventilation to provide a normal microclimate in residential and public buildings. It is widely applied To. century in places of long stay of a large number of people (gyms, theaters, movie theaters, clubs, audiences,-tsy. - cars, airplanes, etc.), and also in some production rooms, where under the terms of technology or in connection with a gigabyte. it is necessary to support by requirements certain parameters of a microclimate or high degree of purity of air.
At design To. century requirements a dignity shall be considered. norms of design of the industrial enterprises (CH 245 — 71) and heads Construction Norms and Regulations on design of heating, ventilation, etc.
Depending on appointment conditioners are equipped with the corresponding equipment allowing to cool, heat, humidify, drain air, to clear it of dust, harmful gases and smells. It shall provide full or partial automatic control of operation of units and their regulation. To. can be full or partial century. At full conditioning all are made or the majority of the listed operations, at partial is provided to hl. obr. cooling or heating of air.
Conditioners are subdivided on central and local. The central systems are intended for service of group of rooms in which it is necessary to support identical parameters of a microclimate. These systems from the special sections which are carrying out operations on processing of air Kompanutsya. Air delivery to rooms is carried out on well isolated channels. The central conditioners have high efficiency (from 30 to 500 thousand m 3 air at 1 o'clock) are also applied to public, office and industrial buildings. Local conditioners provide necessary parameters of air usually in one rather small room; productivity makes them 1 — 10 thousand m 3 air at 1 o'clock. Local conditioners are subdivided on autonomous and nonautonomous; the last are supplied with heat and cold from the central sources and used for To. century in rooms more than 100 m 2 .
For creation comfortable and a gigabyte. conditions in operational, postoperative and hospital chambers independent KA-6 and UKV-1 conditioners are intended. The B-1 U K conditioner provides automatic maintenance of temperature in the serviced room no more than 120 m 3 within 18 — 25 ° and relative humidity of air within 55 — 60%.
For cooling of air in household and service premises up to 25 m 2 during the warm period of year the room conditioners of the window Azerbaijan type and BK-1500 providing automatic maintenance of temperature indoors within 18 — 28 ° at a temperature of fresh air up to 35 ° are intended. During the operation of the refrigerating unit on the evaporator there is a condensation of the airborne water vapor that leads to cooling and drainage of air. The conditioner gives mix of recirculation and fresh air, the ratio between to-rymi is regulated by the gate.
Bibliography: Voronin G. I. Air conditioning systems on aircraft, M., 1973; Provincial Yu. D. and Korenevskaya E. I. Hygienic bases of conditioning of a microclimate of residential and public buildings, M., 19 78; Malysheva A. E. Hygienic questions of radiation heat exchange of the person with the environment, M., 1963, bibliogr.; Nesterenkoa. B. Bases of thermodynamic calculations of ventilation and air conditioning, M., 1971; The Guide to utility hygiene, under the editorship of F. G. Krotkov, t. 3, page 276, M., 1963.
Yu. P. Paltsev.