From Big Medical Encyclopedia

AIR-CURE (grech, aer air + therapeia treatment; aerotherapeutics) — use of influence of open air in the medical and preventive purposes. And. — one of the main methods of a climatotherapy. To special types And. belong long stay (including a dream) on open verandahs, balconies, in special klimatopavilyona in day and night time («verandny treatment»); air bathtubs — impact of open air on a naked body. Element A. influence of fresh air is during walks, excursions, sports on air etc.

The physiological and revitalizing action And. it is connected with the increased providing an organism with oxygen of air, and also with effect of cooling, a cut can be long and continuous (at day stay and a night dream in the fresh air) or short-term, but systematically repeating (at air bathtubs). At And. ultra-violet scattered radiation can have a certain effect. In this case the procedure is called a sveto-air bathroom.

Air bathtubs strengthen «dermal respiration» and have exciting effect on cold skin receptors as temperature of fresh air is usually lower than surface temperature of skin. The movement of air strengthens the cooling influence. The afferent impulsation caused by irritation of receptors of a skin surface acts on c. the N of page also reflex influences functions of respiratory, cardiovascular systems, a muscle tone (skin and visceral and skin and motor reflexes), level of exchange processes, heat production of an organism. At systematic irritation during reception of air bathtubs of cold skin receptors, to-rye in usual conditions under clothes almost do not feel such irritations, the threshold of their sensitivity raises, mechanisms of thermal control train, functional capacity of all main physiological systems increases. Resistance of an organism to cooling develops, i.e. occurs hardening (see).

In the mechanism of action of air bathtubs allocate two main phases: 1) nervnoreflektorny (primary fever), characterized by a cryesthesia, decrease in skin temperature, increase of breath etc.; 2) reactive, shown a caumesthesia; increase in heat production of an organism is the cornerstone of it (owing to chemical thermal control). At the wrong carrying out an air bathtub there can come the third phase (a secondary fever) which is characterized by the paresis of skin vessels, emergence of cyanosis expressed by a pilomotor reflex that indicates disturbance of mechanisms of thermal control and overcooling of an organism.

Under the influence of correctly carried out procedure of an air bathtub oxygen consumption owing to increase in coefficient of its use and increase in minute volume of breath increases. As a result the oxygen content in blood raises and oxidizing processes are stimulated in fabrics. Expressiveness fiziol. shifts is defined by extent of cooling and reactivity of an organism.

At day, night or round-the-clock stay on a verandah cold influence less intensively (to irritation the face and a mucous membrane of upper respiratory tracts is exposed), but is longer, than at an air bathtub. A certain value has also that the patient breathes pure, fresh air; it causes emergence of deeper respiratory movements, the best ventilation of the lungs and consequently, and receipt in blood of large amounts of oxygen. At deep breath thermoreceptors of a mucous membrane of upper respiratory tracts are affected colder, than usually, by air that provides their training. Verandny treatment is more softly operating procedure, than air bathtubs.

Under the influence of a course A. the functional condition of c is normalized. N of page that is shown by improvement of a dream and number of kliniko-physiological indicators. Point data of objective inspections to it: pletizmografiya (M. I. Karasyov, E. B. Friedman, Sh. R. Topchiyev), psychomotor reactions (N. A. Gavrikov), touch hronaksimetriya (M. M. Vul and Yu. M. Uflyand). Functions of cardiovascular and respiratory systems improve. The general body resistance and working capacity increases. Strengthening of oxidizing processes in an organism under action And. allows to consider this influence as a method of a natural oxygenotherapy.

At the heart of the preventive (tempering) action And. the training of thermoregulatory mechanisms lies. It is confirmed by improvement of indicators of thermoadaptation: according to skin electrothermometry, reactions to a holodovy irritant decrease — the period of recovery (return of temperature of skin to a reference state) is reduced, the difference of temperatures between usually open and closed sites of skin decreases.


Fig. Reception of air bathtubs on a verandah.

Air bathtubs and semi-bathtubs (an exposure on a belt) carry out 1 — 2 time a day in position of the patient lying, reclining or standing. Air baths can be taken in aero sunbeds (see), on verandahs (fig.), balconies, the shaded platforms in the park, in rooms at open windows. Dose them on extent of cooling, or so-called cold loading. Heatlosses at influence of open air are result of complex temperature effect of air, its humidity and the movement therefore conditions of carrying out air bathtubs characterize by the size of the equivalent and effective temperature (EET) considering all these factors (see the Climatotherapy). Distinguish air bathtubs cold (0 — 8 °), moderately cold (9 — 16 °), cool (17 — 20 °), so-called indifferent (21 — 22 °) and warm (higher than 22 °). Cold and moderately cold air bathtubs for the prevention of overcooling combine with physical exercises of average intensity not to reduce uslovnoreflektorny reactions of heat generation in response to cooling. Duration of a bathtub is determined by ready dosimetric tables (tab.) establishing a ratio between time of the procedure, extent of cooling (cold loading) and conditions of the environment (EET). Extent of cooling is determined by deficit of heat, edges depends on the size of heat generation and a thermolysis. At purpose of an air bathtub point a dose in kilocalories to square meter of a body surface (kcal/m 2 ) and EET, is lower a cut the procedure cannot be adopted. The last is necessary because at low EET the appointed size of cooling is reached for a small time term therefore intensity of cooling sharply increases and can cause adverse reactions. Example of record of appointment: air bathtubs to 25 kcal/m 2 , EET not lower than 18 °; proceeding from the provided table, duration of a bathtub will be equal to 20 min. The course of air bathtubs contains not less than 20 — 30 procedures, it is begun usually with a dose of 5 — 10 kcal/m 2 and, gradually increasing it each one-three days by 5 kcal/m 2 , bring to appointed. At emergence of the expressed asthma, heartbeat, cyanosis, feeling of fatigue, a fever the termination of an air bathtub, and in the subsequent — reduction of a dose is necessary.

Extra care is required during the carrying out And. in cold season. Strict observance of the main methodical installations at verandny treatment is necessary: purpose of acclimatization, its after period; a preliminary hardening hydrotherapeutic procedures and their continuation during a course of treatment; the corresponding concealment of patients depending on the ambient temperature (warm blankets, sleeping bags); accounting of weather conditions; a continuity of carrying out, except for days with adverse weather; overseeing by reaction of patients; use of the actions preventing emergence of negative reactions, and transfer of patients in chamber at their development; the corresponding equipment of a verandah and klimatopavilyon (tents from a rain and wind, bedside rugs, etc.); use is preferential the verandahs oriented to the South with the wide review of the area. In these conditions patients can sleep on a verandah at a temperature to — 15 ° or even to — 20 °.

Indications and contraindications

And. as a method of a hardening it is shown to healthy people, convalescents, at diseases of a respiratory organs, at various forms of a pulmonary tuberculosis and bones, at chronic nonspecific pneumonia of the I—II stage in a phase of the calming-down aggravation and remission, at chronic bronchitis, diseases of a cardiovascular and nervous system (at an idiopathic hypertensia of the I—II stage and coronary heart disease, initial stages of cerebral atherosclerosis, a neurasthenia, etc.), anemias, disturbances of a lipometabolism, etc. And. it is applied at treatment of respiratory insufficiency; promotes more bystry recovery of functions after lung and heart operations. The round-the-clock stay in the fresh air at EET lower than 10 ° and air bathtubs of strong cold loading (to 45 kcal/m 2 ) can be appointed the patient during compensation of pathological process, not inclined to catarrhal diseases. At EET from 10 to 15 ° indications to verandny treatment extend. It can be recommended to patients in a condition of unstable remission, with heart diseases, vessels and lungs at heart and pulmonary failure of the I degree. Air bathtubs of average cold loading are shown to the same patients (to 35 kcal/m 2 ). A dream on air at EET higher than 15 ° and air bathtubs of weak cold loading (to 25 kcal/m 2 ) can be appointed the patient with disturbances of blood circulation and respiratory insufficiency of the II degree, with processes in a phase of the calming-down aggravation. It is especially shown And. for a hardening of children (see. Hardening ).

Choice of a type of procedures A. (air bathtubs or verandny treatment) is defined by a form and a stage of a disease. And. it is contraindicated at all acute infectious, infectious and allergic and pyoinflammatory diseases, at diseases in a stage of an aggravation, and also at disturbance of thermal control of an organic origin.

In cold season And. it is contraindicated to patients with neuralgia, neuritis, miozita, with damages of joints, bronchial asthma with frequent attacks, with cardiovascular and respiratory insufficiency of the II—III degree, with diseases of kidneys, with sharply expressed endocrine disturbances, with frequent quinsies etc. Care at use is necessary And. to persons 60 years at which adaptable mechanisms are weakened, and the patient with hypersensitivity to cooling are more senior.

See also Climatotherapy .

Bibliography: Boksha V. G. and N. A. Aeroterapiya's Dolgikh-Litt (physiological bases and clinical use), Kiev, 1968: Voronin H. M and K. E. Klimatolecheniye's Butchers of patients with diseases of cardiovascular system in a midland of the Soviet Union, M., 1961; Chaps of H.A. Theoretical and practical questions of a hardening in resorts during the cool period of year, Vopr. kurortol., fizioter., No. 2, page 97, 1971; The Climatotherapy, under the editorship of V. G. Boksha and B. V. Bogutsky, Kiev, 1966; Koyransky B. B. Cooling, overcooling and their prevention, L., 1966; Ovsyannikov of A. V. Klimatolecheniye of suffering from tuberculosis lungs on the Southern coast of the Crimea, M., 1955; Philosophy and techniques of a klimatolecheniye, under the editorship of A.S. Vishnevsky, M., 1965; Petrov E. D. Sanatorium treatment of suffering from tuberculosis lungs, M., 1963; Shemetilo I. G. Resort and physical factors in complex treatment of patients with bone and joint tuberculosis, D., 1971.

V. G. Boksha.