AGRICULTURE — the industry of production of goods providing the population with food stuffs, and the industry — raw materials. Page x. — one of the most ancient types of economic activity of the person; its origin belongs to the period when the person began to process the soil the elementary tools and to cultivate animals. With change of public formations character and type of agriculture changed.
Socialist S. x. — it is the large, technically equipped industry of the national economy consisting of two manufacturing sectors — state and cooperative.
Sovr. agrarian policy of the CPSU provides S.'s intensification x. on the basis of complex mechanization, chemicalixation and land reclamation. Specialization and concentration of production, development of inter-economic bonds caused emergence of higher forms of cooperation — agro-industrial complex. In the USSR as a result of implementation of the Lenin cooperative plan, sovr. agrarian policy of the CPSU in short terms there were essential changes not only in economic, but also in social development of the village: sharply the cultural level of country people increased, improved a working condition and life, medical - a dignity. service of the population; work in S. x. turns into a kind of work industrial, the specific weight of handworks is reduced, conditions for elimination of distinctions between the city and the village are created. Food programme (see) the USSR for the period till 1990 provides along with further increase in production of main types of food, development of material and technical resources of agro-industrial complex significant improvement of social living conditions in the village.
Page x. usually subdivide into two primary branches — agriculture or crop production (field husbandry, vegetable growing, grassland culture, gardening, cotton growing, etc.) and livestock production (cattle breeding, pig-breeding, sheep breeding, poultry farming, etc.). Page x. includes also different types of primary processing of vegetable and animal products.
Occupational health in S. x. studies impact on an organism of people of the environmental factors and labor processes characteristic of various industries of S. x., develops measures for improvement of working conditions, preservation and promotion of health of working. The major place is taken by establishment of levels of influence of harmful factors of the production environment, admissible, safe for health. Philosophy and methods occupational health (see) are used in this industry of production of goods taking into account features of work of page - x. workers. In particular, seasonality and specific urgency of works cause irregularity of loadings within a year and the considerable physical tension of working. With advance of agriculture in sowing. areas this feature becomes even more expressed. Work of page - x. workers differs also in the fact that the majority of the main works is carried out by c the field from early spring to late fall and partially in the winter at continuous influence on the meteorological factors working a complex in the open air, to-ry depends on the climatic zone, season and weather conditions. Replacement of manual skills in the field machine, the equipment of tractors, combines and other pages - x. cars cabins with air conditioning in them, all extending cultivation of plants in the conditions of the closed soil partially smooth this feature, but completely do not liquidate it.
Feature of page - x. work, having important a gigabyte. value, is frequent change of the working operations which are carried out by the same face that is especially expressed in field crews. The scientific and technical progress covering all industries of S. x., gives to work of page - x. workers narrow, professional character. To features of work in S. x. space dispersion, conducting works on big spaces belongs that is followed by considerable wasting of energy for overcoming distances from the residence to the place of work.
Use of chemical means of protection of plants leads to impreventable pollution by them not only air of a working zone, but also the biosphere. Scales of use in S. extend x. pesticides (see), mineral fertilizers (see) and other biologically active agents, such as growth-promoting factors, mineral nutritional supplements. The problem of use of pesticides becomes complicated: their firstgeneration — highly toxic and persistent drugs — was replaced by the second, a considerable part to-rykh has the increased ability to cause the remote effects (mutagen and cancerogenic action, embriotoksichesky and teratogenic effects). Along with it there were essentially new, selectively operating pesticides. Products of their disintegration belong to natural biogenic substances, to-rye are not dangerous as pollutants of the environment.
Hygienic feature of agricultural work consists in potentiality of developing of the diseases which are transmitted from animals to the person (see. Zoonoza ). With transfer of livestock production into an industrial basis and use in it biol. drugs (antibiotics, fodder yeast, protein-vitamin concentrates, amino acids, vitamins) there were new types of the prof. of pathology caused by influence as the biological drugs used as additives to sterns and microorganisms, including a dispute of nek-ry thermophilic actinomycetes.
Working conditions in modern agriculture depend on the organization of work, level of mechanization, technology of cultivation of plants, a type of the used cars. Basis of mechanization of this industry of S. x. make tractors, self-propelled machines and complexes of the replaced hinged and hook-on cars. The serial tractors released in the USSR, K-700, K-701, T-150, T-150K, MTZ-80 * and T-70C are the high-power saturated cars which considerably increased labor productivity more stoutly answering a gigabyte. to requirements in comparison with earlier being issued. The muscular efforts used by the operator to levers and pedals at control of the unit do not exceed admissible sizes. Microclimatic conditions in cabins of tractors as a result of use of such complex measures as shielding, heat insulation, installation of conditioners of evaporating type, coloring of cabins in light tone, are brought to optimum indicators. In the winter for heating of air in cabins either special heaters, or conditioners are used; at the same time air temperature is maintained at the level of 14 — 20 ° at a temperature of fresh air — 20 °. A shortcoming are big temperature drops of air in a cabin on height.
The majority of the mechanized works in S. x. is followed by dust formation (see. Dust ). Decrease in content of dust in a zone of breath is reached by sealing of cabins, use of conditioners. Creation in a cabin of pressure exceeding on 2 mm w.g. atmospheric, excludes receipt in it from the outside of the air containing dust. Air at receipt in the conditioner is purified on special filters. Extent of cleaning reaches 98%.
Tractors and other S. - x. cars generate noise (see). Noise level in workplaces of operators sovr. tractors does not exceed admissible. Tractors are widely used at transport works therefore protection against noise (external) not only of operators, but also inhabitants of settlements is necessary. The external noise created by tractors shall not exceed 85 dB on a scale And. Operators of tractors and other pages - x. are affected by cars along with noise vibrations (see), sources a cut are. generally running gear (low-frequency vibration) and engine. The operator is at the same time influenced by the general low-frequency, general and local high-frequency vibration. Wear or bad adjustment of separate details and nodes of the engine and a running gear leads to increase in levels of vibration and noise. Effective ways of reduction of level of vibration are the special podressorpvaniye and depreciation.
Operators of page - x. can be also affected by cars exhaust gases (see), pesticides, mineral fertilizers and other chemical substances. Concentration of carbon monoxide in air of a working zone on sovr. tractors, as a rule, do not exceed marginal. Air pollution by pesticides perhaps at preparation of solutions, gas station of cars them, directly during the spraying or dusting of plants, technical or technological service of cars for use of pesticides. Good sealing of a cabin, excessive pressure in it interfere with intake of harmful chemical substances in air of a working zone. Use of the tractors which are not equipped with cabins at the works connected using pesticides is forbidden.
For simplification of work of operators the complex automated machine and tractor units providing the automated control of work of the main nodes and technological processes are implemented.
Working conditions in agriculture also in many respects depend on technology of cultivation of page - x. cultures. Cleaning of such cultures as sugar beet, potatoes, comes to an end late fall at low temperatures and high air humidity; cultivation of rice differs in the fact that for the entire period of vegetation the field is filled in with water therefore use of cars is complicated. Working conditions at cultivation of a cotton differ in the fact that air temperature during summer works can reach 40 °C and more, considerable solar radiation takes place.
Working conditions in vegetable growing of the closed soil are specific. In greenhouses the microclimate heating, caused by technology is created: the increased parameters of temperature and air humidity at its minimum mobility. The gas composition of air of greenhouses depends on a way of their heating. Use of systems with open combustion of gas can lead to air pollution by products of its incomplete combustion, including carbon monoxide (up to 250 mg/m3). In greenhouses in connection with limited volume of air in them danger of influence of pesticides is increased.
Productions provide in livestock production: receiving products (milk, meat, eggs, wool); service of animals (feeding, leaving, removal of manure); cultivation and cultivation of young growth. The livestock production, as well as agriculture, is transferred to an industrial basis. Mechanization of such laborious works as milking, distribution of forages, removal of manure, considerably reduced exercise stresses, improved working conditions. Operators of machine milking, machine operators on distribution of forages, cleaning of manure, mechanics on service of milking machines, conveyors and other equipment became the main professions on farms of industrial type. Manual milking of cows is the most labor-intensive process in milk livestock production. At milkmaids of manual milking characteristic diseases of hands, lumbosacral are possible radiculitis (see), neuralgia (see). Machine milking not only increases labor productivity in 2 — 4 and more times, but also facilitates it.
An adverse factor of the production circle of cattle breeders is specific, the off-flavor caused by presence at air of mercaptans, an indole, skatole, amines, aldehydes, ketones, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and other substances which are formed at decomposition of manure. At distribution of dry feeds and cleaning of rooms in air the amount of the dust containing microorganisms sharply increases. Microflora of livestock rooms usually consists of saprophytic and opportunistic forms — sticks of proteyny and intestinal groups; sometimes in it find golden and white staphylococcus, hemolitic streptococci, mold fungi.
Concentration of gases and dust in air of a working zone, as a rule, do not exceed marginal levels. Extent of microbic air pollution depends on a way of keeping of animals, the period of year, purity of livestock rooms and their disinfection. Number of microbes in 1 m 3 air the dispute of mushrooms — from hundreds to thousands fluctuates from tens to hundreds of thousands, and.
Measures for improvement of working conditions in livestock production turn on the equipment of livestock rooms the effective vent systems providing deaerating from the lower zone of the room and especially from manure channels, systematic cleaning and disinfection, the providing working with special clothes, footwear and other individual protection equipment. For operators of machine milking the two-shift duty is physiologically rational. At manual milking of cows special measures, the warning diseases of hands are necessary — warm trays, self-massage. Workers of livestock farms shall follow rules strictly personal hygiene (see). Sanitarnobytovy rooms, including the sanitary inspection room with shower installations, the restroom and hygiene of the woman, a toilet with a wash basin, an eyeliner of cold and hot water are provided in livestock complexes.
On formula-feed plants or in the workshops which are a part of large livestock complexes enrichment of forages by biologically active agents — protein-vitamin concentrates, enzymes, premixes is made, vitamins, antibiotics, amino acids, hormonal and fermental drugs, microelements are a part to-rykh. Working at such plants and in such workshops can be affected by dust of the complex structure (see Dust) cooling or heating microclimate (see) and noise (see). High concentration of dust can be created about a crushing razmalyva-yushchikh of cars during the loading of initial products, and also on sites of an exit of finished goods. Intake of dust in air of a working zone is possible because of bad sealing of screws, dosers, press of a granulation, etc. In air the residual amounts of pesticides which are contained in raw materials, and also microorganisms and fungi are found.
During the souring (siloing) of corn, sunflower and other silage cultures in special storages (towers, trenches, holes) acids, salts apply sodium pyrosulphite, sodium nitrite, glauber salt. As a result mikrobiol. and biochemical processes vegetable weight is fermented that is followed by release of the «silage» gas containing carbon dioxide, nitric oxides, aldehydes, essential oils, etc. Works on dredging of a silo from storages are especially dangerous. Strict observance of safety regulationss — long repeated airings of storages is necessary at open hatches, special instructing of workers, use hose gas masks (see). At working livestock farms the increased frequency of a disease of pulmonary diseases is noted, including pneumonia (see) and bronchitis (see), skin — furunculosis (see), allergic dermatitis (see), an eye — blepharitis (see), conjunctivitis (see), etc.
Important measures for improvement of working conditions in livestock production are the rational design of the basic technological processes and the equipment, reduction of extent of transport lines, sealing of the equipment on formula-feed plants and in workshops, first of all conveyors, dosers, the crushing and grinding cars, all-exchange forced-air and exhaust ventilation (see), the mechanized cleaning of rooms.
In the USSR in all industries of S. x. it is carried out precautionary and current sanitary inspection (see) behind construction, reconstruction and operation of production objects. Its original positions extend also to implementation of new pesticides and other chemical substances, serial release of tractors and other pages - x. cars.
Implementation state dignity. supervision in livestock production it is carried out in close contact with vt. service (see. Veterinary sanitary inspection ). Constant improvement taking into account a gigabyte is result of it. requirements of technological processes, improvement of working conditions, prevention of environmental pollution.
Bibliography: Occupational health, under the editorship of Yu. I. Kundiyev, etc., Kiev, 1981; Occupational health in agricultural production, under the editorship of L. I. Medvedya and Yu. I. Kundiyev, M., 1981; The Reference book on pesticides (Hygiene of use and toxicology), under the editorship of L. I. Medvedya, Kiev, 1977; Guide to health and hygiene in agricultural work, Geneva, 1979.
Yu. I. Kundiyev.