AGRICOLA Gueor[Agricola, real name Bauer; lat. agricola — «farmer», transfer of the German word «Bauer»; 1494 — 1555] — the German doctor, the metallurgist and the mineralogist. In 1514 entered the university in Leipzig which ended in 3,5 years with degree of the bachelor. Got further education at the Bologna and Paduan universities (Italy). Follower of the most visible humanist of Renaissance Erasmus Rotterdamsky. Participated in reprinting and commenting of works of Hippocrates and Galen. In 1527 after receiving degree of the doctor of medicine Agricola lodged in Yakhimov (Czech Republic) — the center of ore mining and metallurgical industry where he worked as the city doctor and studied diseases of miners. Since 1533 lived in Chemnitz (Saxony). In the works it generalized centuries-old experience of mining and metallurgy, in details tracked influence of working conditions on health of working. In work of «De re metallica» («About mining and metallurgy», 1556) and other works Agricola described a number of the diseases which are found at miners in connection with gassings of air in mines, a large amount of dust, excess of moisture and harmful effect of metals and specified the actions directed to their elimination. Attached special significance to the prevention of diseases. Agricola's works characterize it as one of predecessors of professional hygiene.
In the books devoted to the description of minerals he points to curative properties of many metals and minerals, medicinal properties and fields of mineral waters etc.
From medical compositions of Agricola our time was reached by only one book about plague («De peste»), in a cut the description of various forms of a disease contains. In the works he urged to fight against scholasticism, mysticism, alchemy, to be based on observations of the nature, sensible mind and practical knowledge.
Works: Libri quinque de mensuris et ponderibus in quibue pleraque a Budaeo et Portio parum animadversa diligenter excutiuntur, Paris! is, 1533; De natura eorum quae eff-luunt ex terra, Venetiie, 1553; De peste, Basileae, 1554; De re metallica, N. Y., 1950.
Bibliography: Choukhardin S. V. Georgy Agricola, M., 1955; Georgius Agricola, 1494 — 1555, V., 1955; Horst U. Bestands-aufnahme der Werke des Dr. Georgius Agricola mit bibllographischen Forechungs-ergehniesen, B., 1971.
E. I. Lotova.