From Big Medical Encyclopedia

AGE PHYSIOLOGY — the section of physiology studying features of age development of functions of animal and vegetable organisms from their origin before the termination of individual existence (death). Century f. investigates in every period ontogenesis (see) functions of a complete organism, its cells, fabrics and functional systems.

Main objectives of V. f.: a) studying of features of ontogenesis of an organism and its separate systems inherent in everyone I will increase (see); b) opening of the major factors defining the general pattern of age changes of organisms. The solution of these tasks and creation of the full theory of ontogenesis (taking into account the features of aging inherent in separate systematic groups of organisms) will facilitate finding of ways to management of processes of life activity of a human body at all stages of ontogenesis (increase in physical and mental capacities etc.). These tasks closely pull together V. f. with pedagogics and pediatrics (see), with gerontology (see) and geriatrics (see). Besides, V. f. it is closely connected with biochemistry, molecular biology, biophysics, anatomy, histology and others biol, sciences.

At the majority of the lowest forms of animals the main periods of life are embryonal, larval and adult stages (at insects development is followed by metamorphosis). At the highest vertebrata the periods of ontogenesis are close to human.

At the person, on morfol, V. V. Bunak (1965) classifications, distinguish the next main periods of ontogenesis: pre-natal (germinal, prefetal and fetal phases), infantile, teenage, youthful, adult, elderly, senile and late senile. On fiziol, I. A. Arshavsky's classifications (1967) at the person distinguish antenatal ontogenesis with actually germinal, or germinal (1 week), embryonal (5 weeks) and fetalis (32 weeks) the periods and post-natal ontogenesis with the next periods: neonatal (8 days), a laktotrofny form of food (5 — 6 months), a combination of a laktotrofny form of food to a feeding up (from 6 to 11 — 12 months), prepreschool age (from 1 year to 2,5 — 3 years), preschool age (from 3 to 7 years), the adolescence (from 7 to 12 — 13 years), prepubertatny (from 12 — 13 to 17 — 18 years), puberty (from 18 to 50 — 60 years), advanced age (from 60 to 75 years), an old age (from 75 to 90 years), macrobiotic (over 90 years).

Domestic V.'s founder f. and the gerontology can consider I. I. Mechnikov who created the theory of aging as consequences of fight of parenchymatous and connecting fabrics in an organism and intoxication of an organism putrilages of proteins in intestines («Etudes about human nature», 1903; «Etudes of optimism», 1907). Its works formed a basis for a research of a problem of aging and death. Idea of death as about result of exhaustion of hypothetical «nuclear substance» (I. R. Tarkhanov, 1891) conformable the latest concept Zh. Leva (1906).

S. I. Metalnikov considered the reason of aging imperfection of division of the nuclear device of cells. In-depth study of early ontogenesis ts.n.s. and analyzers at the person carried out V. M. Bekhterev in 1884 — 1897 and P. F. Lesgaft in 1884 — 1909. Problems of comparative physiology and morphology of age development were developed by Preyer (1885) and E. Babak (1902). The founder of domestic pediatrics N. P. Gongdobing During the period from 1891 to 1907 created the multilateral doctrine about development of the child. Minot (Ch. S. Minot, 1908) put forward idea of death as a consequence of easing by an old age of a differentiation of cells and fabrics.

Especially intensively in our country V. f. began to develop in the Soviet period. I. P. Pavlov and M. K. Petrova (1936) showed a role of «failure» of century of N of in a senilism of an organism. A. A. Bogomolets in 1912 — 1946 developed and proved the theory of the stimulating role of connecting fabric for longevity, suggested to apply the antireticular cytotoxic serum (ACS) to initiation of life activity of the growing old organism, created the theory of kolloidoklazichesky shock as bases of a hematotherapy of aging. I. I. Shmalgauzen (1926) opened patterns of growth and a differentiation of the developing organisms and aging as a consequence of the termination of growth at achievement of the maximum differentiations.

A. V. Palladiya found out biochemical, bases of differentiations in early ontogenesis. A. V. Nagorny and his pupils I. N. Bulankin and B. N. Nikitin created the theory of the fading full value of self-updating of protoplasm as bases of ontogenesis, the doctrine about initial progressive, and then regressive value of increase of structuredness of protoplasm for life activity - an organism (work 30 — the 70th). D.F. Chebotaryov and V. V. Frolkis since 50th study ontogenesis of functional systems of an organism and feature of its adaptation in old age. V. V. Frolkis (1975) put forward the regulatory and adaptation theory of aging, according to a cut disturbance of regulyation is considered as the most important attribute of aging. P. K. Anokhin and his school actively studied patterns of development of functions in ontogenesis and the theory is created sistemogeneza (see), according to a cut the selective and accelerated maturing morfol, educations provides to an organism a possibility of adaptation to environmental factors.

Foreign scientists Korenchevsky (V. Korenchevsky, from 1925 to 1961) and K. Parkhon (40 — the 60th) showed colloid and chemical and endocrine conditionality of aging. To L. Binet IF. F. Bourliere in the 50th, and also Shock (N. W. Shock, from 1942 to 1975) was investigated fiziol, and patofiziol. changes in bodies and systems of the growing old organism. F. Vertsar, Curtice (N. of J. Curtis) and J. Bjorksten send that increase of intermolecular bonds in a genome of a cell and collagen of intercellular substance of connecting body tissue can be the leading cause of aging (work of 50 — 70). A. Comfort (from 1963 to 1975) patterns of extinction of populations of species of vertebrata are found in ontogenesis.

Researches in the area B. f. at various levels of the organization of living matter allowed to establish the quantitative and qualitative features of age development of macro-molecular structures of cells and their separate organellas, the nature of relationship of cells and fabrics inherent in each age, and also an originality of age change of processes of metabolism in fabrics and functional systems of an organism — in early youth increase, and then, by an old age, slow decrease in intensity of exchange processes. During the studying of age changes of neurohumoral regulation and functionality of a complete human body and animals their qualitative features on each of stages of ontogenesis, existence of the high lability and plasticity which is combined with «vulnerability» of a children's organism and considerable adaptation opportunities of the growing old organism are revealed. Special attention of V. f. gives to studying of the functional characteristic of various periods of age development of an organism and the factors defining them i.e. definition objective fiziol., biochemical, and biophysical, characteristics («passports»), age standards. Problems of an imprinting are deeply developed (see. Instinct ), features of an organism during the period puberty (see), neuroendocrinal shifts during the periods of a female and men's climax (see the Climacteric), complex adaptation changes in the growing old human body (see. Old age , aging). Possibilities of extension of life and increase in ability of full self-updating of protoplasm at all stages of ontogenesis are in vitro studied.

Bibliography: Arshavsky I. A. Sketches on age physiology, M., 1967, bibliogr.; Pilgrim A. A. Prodleniye of life, Kiev, 1940; Bunak V. V. Allocation of stages of ontogenesis and chronological borders of the age periods, Owls. pedagogics, No. 11, page 105, 1965; Age physiology, under the editorship of V. N. Nikitin, L., 1975; A. Biologiya's Comfort of aging, the lane with English, M., 1967, bibliogr.; Mountain A. V., Nikitin V. N. and B at l and N to and I. N. Problem's N of aging and longevity, M., 1963; Nikitin V. N. Domestic works on age physiology, biochemistry and morphology, Kharkiv, 1958; Steam-x about K. I N. Age biology, the lane from Romanians., Bucharest, 1959; Frolkis V. V. Aging and biological opportunities of an organism, M., 1975; Burger M. Altern und Krankheit, als Problem der Biomorphose, Lpz., 1960; Curtis H. J. Biological mechanisms of aging, Springfield, 1966.

B. H. Nikitin.