AGE BONE (synonym «skeletal» age) — the age of the person determined by a condition of bone system.
In normally developing organism direct compliance between extent of development of bone system and age of the person is observed. It matters in clinic, especially at dynamic observations, and in court. - medical practice. The main indicators of an age differentiation of bones of a skeleton — emergence of kernels of ossification and approach of synostoses (tab.), the sizes of bones and their outward, character of a microstructure and mineral composition of a bone tissue (see. Bone ).
Define V. to. on set of signs: at newborns and children from 1 to 3 years along with extent of differentiation of a skeleton and the sizes of tubular bones and skulls consider the nature of overgrowing of fontanels; at children 3 years are more senior, teenagers and young people with not ended process have formations of a skeleton — terms of emergence of kernels of ossification and approach of synostoses, the sizes of tubular bones and the head, extent of overgrowing of seams of the arch and a base of skull, character of the jointed surfaces of bones and a microstructure of a bone tissue, and also terms of eruption teeth (see) and extent of their deleting. Not fusion of seams of a calvaria and its front department, existence in area of a symphysis, a crest of an ileal bone, and also top and bottom the surfaces of bodies of vertebrae of characteristic striation (fig. 1) testifies to incompleteness of formation of a skeleton. For studying of a condition of ossification most often use the roentgenogram of a brush and distal department of a forearm (fig. 2 and 3). At the same time it is necessary to consider that in connection with the acceleration which is observed in the last decades, terms of emergence of kernels of ossification and approach of synostoses considerably differ from similar data 30 — the 40th years 20 century.
At adult and elderly people of V. to. establish on the dystrophic changes of a bone tissue which are characterized by osteoporosis and the related changes of a microstructure of a bone tissue and quite often its mineral composition; bone growths (including osteophytes, Geberden and Bouchard's nodes) in interphalangeal joints of a brush, joints of tubular bones and vertebrae and the deformation of joints developing in this regard (is more often after 40 — 45 years); strengthening of a relief of a bone in places of an attachment of sheaves and sinews; overgrowing of seams of a skull; changes of a form, outward and weight of nek-ry bones, etc. Involute signs appear by 40 — 45 years and with age progress. Bone growths of distal phalanxes of a brush (fig. 4) are observed at men since 40 — 45 years, at women — from 45 — 50 years. Olivoobrazny tuberosity of distal phalanxes gradually is replaced fungoid (fig. 5 and 6).
Terms and intensity of overgrowing of seams of a skull depend on a variety of reasons, including and on its form: at a dolichocephalia (dolechocephalism) the sinostozirovaniye begins slightly earlier and proceeds more intensively, than at a brachycephaly (brachycephaly). The full obliteration of seams of a calvaria comes more often to 60 — to 70-year age. Thinned, in the form of a narrow plate, the horseshoe form of a mandible is characteristic of advanced and senile age.
For V.'s definition to, use a complex of various methods: anatomo-morphological, radiological, osteometric, microscopic and spectrographic.
Bibliography: Drills S. A. and Reznikov B. D. Features of ossification of a brush and distal department of a forearm and their value at age determination, Court. - medical examination, No. 15 of page 21, 1972; Drills S. A. and Reunov of V. M. Problem of acceleration in forensic medicine, Works Saratovsk. medical in-that, t. 60, page 158, 1969; Vinogradova T. P. Some senile changes of bone and cartilaginous substance, in book: Probl, geront. and the geriatrician, in ortop, and travmat., under the editorship of M. V. Volkov, page 46, Kiev, 1966; Neklyudov Yu. A. About stability of radiographic structure of nail phalanxes of a brush, in book: Court. - medical examination and criminalistics on service of the investigation, under the editorship of A. S. Lithuanian Jew, page 635, Stavropol, 1967; Nikityuk B. A. Modern ideas of aging of a skeleton, in book: The morph, the person and animals, Anthropology, Results of science, is gray. biol., page 5, M., 1968; Podrushnyak E. P. Age changes of joints of the person, Kiev, 1972.
V. I. Pashkova.