AFGHANISTAN, the Republic Afghanistan — the state in a South zap. speak rapidly the Center. Asia. The area is 655.5 thousand km 2 , population of 18,3 million people (1973). The capital — Kabul (500 thousand people, 1972).
In the administrative relation territory And. it is divided into 28 provinces.
Ofits. languages — Pashto and Dari. The dominating religion — Islam.
As independent state A. it is educated in 1747. The political system — the republic (it is proclaimed on July 17, 1973).
And. — the country of mountains which borrow apprx. 3/4 territories. Climate dry, subtropical. Average temperature of July from 24 to 32 °, winter on plains the soft, unstable, average temperature of January from 0 to 8 °, frosts from — 20 to — 30 ° in places are possible. The maximum of rainfall are the share of winter and spring. On the southern plains drops out in a year of 40 — 50 mm of rainfall, on a South vost. — apprx. 800 mm.
Economically And. — the agrarian country with poorly developed industry. The basis of the economy — irrigation agriculture and pasturable livestock production.
Agriculture is based on manual skills of peasants. In crops grain crops prevail (wheat, corn, barley, etc.). In livestock production the major industry is sheep breeding. On production of astrakhan fur (1,5 — 2,5 million skins a year) And. takes the third place in the world (after the USSR and the Republic of South Africa).
V A. extraction of black coal, rock (cooking) salt, natural gas is conducted. From manufacturing industry are most developed textile, food, processing of page - x. raw materials.
To development of economy And. promotes extended with 50 — the 60th years cooperation with the USSR and other socialist countries.
V A. there live over 20 nationalities belonging to various tongue groups. About a half of the population are made by Afghans, from other nationalities Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazaras and Turkmens are most numerous. The prevailing part of the population is made by peasants, in the cities lives apprx. 15% of all population. The settled population is placed unevenly — in fertile valleys population density exceeds 100 people on 1 km 2 (average density is 24 people on 1 km 2 ). About 2,5 million people lead a nomadic and semi-nomadic life.
Natural movement of the population And. in 1965 — 1970 it was characterized by the following indicators: on 1000 people of the population birth rate made 50,5; mortality — 26,5; a natural increase — 24,0. Exact official statistics of health care in And. no. In the country also parasitic diseases have the greatest distribution infectious: over all country, especially in northern areas, malaria is widespread.
An important problem for health care is fight against tuberculosis (in 1970 2000 fresh cases were registered). In some rural areas to 75% of the population it is struck with trachoma. Use for water supply of open reservoirs and bad purification of drinking water cause developing of a typhoid and dysentery. Helminthoses are eurysynusic. There are centers of a skin leushmaniosis, a leprosy (its main centers are in the center, areas). The outbreaks of cholera and smallpox (in 1970 1044 cases of smallpox are registered) are periodically noted. However as a result to lay down. - professional, the events held by bodies of health care with the assistance of WHO, incidence of smallpox sharply decreased — in 1973 25 cases of diseases of smallpox were registered.
Work on health care is coordinated by the Ministry of Health (it is organized in 1931). In each province the health service headed by the director who is responsible for preventive maintenance of the population is created and directs the central hospital of the province. Medical aid to the population appears in state to lay down. institutions and private medical practitioners.
The population receives the hospital help in general hospitals, specialized and in small rural hospitals. In 1972 in And. there were 66 state hospitals on 3322 beds (2 beds on 10 000 people) and 3 group hospitals on 155 beds. A number of hospitals is under authority of the ministries and departments., the Bed fund is distributed over the country unevenly — 60% of beds are in Kabul and its vicinities. Extra hospital help was given in policlinics, the centers of health care, clinics, mobile out-patient clinics and points of medical aid.
In 1972 there were 107 centers of health care and 43 branches.
In 1971 in And. there were 937 doctors (1 doctor on 19 thousand population) from whom the most part worked in Kabul (in provinces 174 thousand people were the share of 1 doctor); dentists — 166, druggists — 31, midwifes — 160, assistants to midwifes — 311, nurses — 102, assistants to nurses — 326.
A medical education is got at medical faculty Kabul un-that (since 1932), and also at medical school in Jalalabad. Some doctors got a medical education in other countries, including in the USSR. Improvement is carried out in clinics of the Soviet Union, France, Germany, the USA and Japan. Doctors from provinces usually specialize in clinics Kabul un-that. Nurses and midwifes are trained at 5 medical schools. Also the central training center which trains assistants to nurses, assistants to midwifes and technicians-laboratory assistants is created.
In 1972 in the country there were 449 drugstores which sell the medicines delivered by more than 60 firms of the different countries (Switzerland, Germany. France, USA, etc.).
In the country there is charitable society of the help to children of «Rosen town», a cut will organize the centers for distribution to children of food stuffs, vitamins and medicines. It supports policlinic and several kindergartens.
V A. after World War II the in-t of public health care, in-t of malaria, bacteriological by in-t on production of vaccines and serums, in-t of tuberculosis, the center of a radiology, in-t of health protection of children which more deal with issues of training of personnel, outpatient appointment of patients, vaccination, delivery of medicines, than scientific questions are created.
In the country events for fight against tuberculosis — mass radiological inspections and vaccination (in 1968 86,2 thousand vaccination are carried out), on fight against smallpox (in 1969 it is imparted by 1291 thousand people, in 1970 — 1587 thousand people), on fight against malaria are held.
Obligatory social insurance is entered only for the serving public institutions, on productions where a high level of traumatism (transport, the mining industry, construction, etc.).
Big help to the population And. on fight against diseases, on preparation of medical shots renders the Soviet Union (in to lay down. institutions the Soviet specialists work, at medical institutes of the USSR students study from And.).
In a gift to the people And. vaccines, serums (against cholera, smallpox) and medicines were repeatedly sent.
The public expenditures on health care in 1972 made 3,5% of the national budget of the country.
Bibliography: Victories and on M. P., Smirnov V. P. and Tsybulsky V. V. Economic geography of the countries of the Middle East, page 22, M., 1969; The Draft of the program and budget estimates for 1975 financial year, page 663, Geneva, WHO, 1974; Economic geography of foreign countries, under the editorship of A.A. Fomina, page 256, M., 1970; Allgemeine Statistik des Auslandes Afganistan, S. 6, Wiesbaden, 1969; The Middle East and North Africa, 1971 — 1972, p. 132, L., 1971; World Health Statistics Report, v. 26, Jsß 3, p. 140, 154, 1973.
A. A. Rozov.