From Big Medical Encyclopedia

AERO IONIZATION (grech, aer air + ionization) — ionization of the gases which are composition of the atmosphere. And. is important for the characteristic of klimato-physical and hygienic features of the area, inhabited, educational and other rooms. In practice of lechebnoprofilaktichesky and sanatorium institutions A. it is widely used as a medical method (an aero ionotherapy, see below).

Physical essence of process And. consists in operation on molecules of gases of air of various external ionizing factors therefore there is a separation of an electron from a molecule and she becomes positively charged, and the come-off free electron, having joined one of neutral molecules, tells her a negative charge. Thus, in the atmosphere couple of opposite charged particles — the negative and positive gas ions, or the aeroions having molecular dimensions and bearing on one elementary charge are formed. The charge of an ion is equal to elementary charge, i.e. 1,6 × 10 - 19 pendent.

Monomolecular ions in usual conditions exist very short time; several neutral molecules of gas join them. Molecular complexes (10 — 15 molecules) with one elementary charge call normal, or lungs, aeroions. They have the sizes of 10-8 cm and have rather big mobility (1 — 2 cm/sec. in electric field tension 1 in on 1 cm).

Facing more coarse particles which are constantly present at the atmosphere, easy ions settle on them and tell them the charge. Thus there are secondary ions including averages or intermediate (10-6 cm), and heavy (10-5 cm) aeroions.

The main sources of ionization of the atmosphere are the space beams operating in all thickness of the atmosphere; radiations of the radioactive materials which are in Earth and air; ultra-violet and corpuscular radiations of the Sun, the ionizing action to-rykh the hl is shown. obr. at the heights of 50 — 60 km.

Also so-called silent discharges at kroner of high trees and at tops of mountains, the strengths of electric field of the atmosphere arising at great values belong to the ionizing factors; spraying and spraying of water at the mountain rivers and falls, in time priboyev at the coast of the seas and oceans — hydroaero ionization which cornerstone the physical phenomenon called by balloelectric effect is. The essence of this effect consists that during the spraying of liquid there is a rupture of dipole molecules of drops of water and in air along with gas ions of oxygen and nitrogen hydroions — a hydroxyl and hydroxonium (E. A. Chernyavsky) are formed.

Along with process of formation of ions in the atmosphere continuously there is a process of their recombination: connecting among themselves, aeroions of an opposite charge form a neutral molecule. The recombination occurs not only between easy ions, but also between easy and heavy. In a recombination of ions a certain value belongs also to diffusion and adsorption of aeroions.

Weather conditions — the atmospheric pressure, temperature and air humidity, cloudiness, winds, thunder-storms, rains are important for processes of education and a recombination of ions in the free atmosphere. At the Earth's surface in usual conditions contains apprx. 450 couples of easy ions in 1 cm2, however there are areas where owing to special geographical conditions the number of light aeroions are much higher.

On biological value A. specified And. P. Sokolov (1903) soon after discovery of aeroions by Elster and Geytel (J. Elster, H. Geitel, 1899), having formulated in general idea of influence And. on an organism.

Due to the opening of atmospheric ions the beneficial effect of stay in nek-ry resorts began to be explained raised And. in these areas, emphasizing special klimatofiziologichesky value of light aeroions of negative polarity.

Dorno's researches (C. Dorno, 1911), Yaglu (C. Jaglou, 1931), A. A. Minkh (1936), etc. showed the considerable changes in an ionization condition of free air and air of the enclosed space resulting from change of weather conditions, accumulation of people, air pollution by dust and smoke, etc. and were the beginning of studying of hygienic value A.

Despite the interest shown by researchers of various specialties — physicists, physiologists, hygienists — to problem A. (its biological effect and therapeutic use), does not have the standard theory of the mechanism of effect of aeroions. In 1933 L. L. Vasilyev made a hypothesis of «organic electroexchange», according to a cut between an organism and the environment «exchange» of electric charges is constantly made. Influence of aeroions on an organism, according to L. L. Vasilyev, happens in two ways: reflex (irritation of pulmonary interoceptors) and humoral (penetration into blood through an alveolar epithelium). By F. G. Portnov (1960) it was shown that in implementation of influence of aeroions important (starting) value belongs to the receptor device of respiratory tracts and skin. The role of skin receptors in the mechanism of effect of aeroions is shown also in S. N. Finogenov's researches (1961).

The importance in the mechanism of effect of aeroions along with a charge is attached also to the carrier of a charge. The operating factor of aeroions of a negative charge consider negatively charged oxygen. The operating factor of aeroions of positive charge it is considered to be positively charged carbon dioxide.

In the light of these representations particular interest is attracted by the so-called serotoninny theory of the mechanism of effect of aeroions of various polarity offered by Kruger (And. Krueger, 1962). Proceeding from experimental data, on the Crimea aeroions of negative polarity stimulate function of a ciliary epithelium of a trachea, and positive polarity — suppress, up to complete cessation of blinkings, Kruger came to conclusion about a possibility of direct effect of aeroions on fibers of an epithelium. According to Kruger, negative aeroions (O 2 - ) exert impact on respiratory enzymes, in particular — cytochrome oxydase, strengthening tsitokhromnosvyazanny oxidation of free serotonin and increasing allocation 5-oxyindolacetum to - you. Effect of positive aeroions (CO 2 ) is followed by increase in content of free serotonin in a mucous membrane of respiratory tracts, in blood and fabrics. Disturbance of functional activity of mucous membranes, a cut is noted at direct effect of positive aeroions, is explained, according to Kruger, by increase in content of free serotonin in a mucous membrane of respiratory tracts, in blood and fabrics. Variety of influence serotonin (see) as biologically active agent can explain to a certain extent a versatility of effect of aeroions on an organism. Strengthening of metabolism of serotonin can be considered as one of important mechanisms of change of neurohumoral regulation under the influence of negatively charged aeroions.

At the same time, however, it is necessary to emphasize that reaction to inhalation of aeroions of various polarity substantially depends on a functional condition of an organism, its individual reactivity, the nature of pathological process and the related changes in an orientation of vegetative reactions, a condition of acid-base balance, etc.

During the studying of physiological action And. special attention was paid to aeroions of negative polarity; their beneficial effect on a nervous system (sedative action), cardiovascular, respiratory systems, exchange processes, and also the desensibilizing effect is established; besides, they accelerate epithelization during the healing of wounds and reduce pain.

An aero ionotherapy — a method of physical therapy which operating factor are preferential unipolarly loaded aeroions.

Distinguish an aero ionotherapy with use natural and artificial And. Natural consists in long stay in areas with the pure, enriched with aeroions air (in mountains, near falls, at the coast of the sea in time priboyev, etc.). For artificial And. use special generators of aeroions — aero ionizers (see below, Aeroionizatora's section).

A kind of an aero ionotherapy is the hydroaero ionotherapy, at a cut for ionization the balloelectric effect is used. At hydroaero ionization also negatively charged ions which, in addition to a charge, bear still alkaline (IT) and acid (OH are formed positively 3 ) properties that pulls together them with electrical aerosols (see. Aerosoltherapy ). On medical effect the hydroaero ionotherapy significantly does not differ from an aero ionotherapy.

The aero ionotherapy is applied as a method of the general influence — aeroionoinhalation or as the local procedure, including in a look aeroion-nogo of massage.

Indications to use of aeroionoinhalation and hydroaero ionotherapy: an idiopathic hypertensia of I and II Art., bronchial asthma (without the phenomena of a pulmonary heart), atrophic rhinitis, an ozena (initial stages), a neurasthenia; to use of aero ionic massage and local And.: inertly healing wounds, trophic ulcers, a dermatosis, neuralgia, radiculitises.

Contraindications for the general and local aeroiono-and a hydroaero ionotherapy: cardiovascular insufficiency II and III Art., the expressed angiosclerosis at the phenomena of cerebrovascular or coronary insufficiency, active tuberculosis, an active phase of rheumatism, malignant and high-quality new growths, bleedings and bent to them, epilepsy, the increased individual sensitivity to conducting air.

The most widespread method aeroiono-and a hydroaero ionotherapy — aeroionoinhalation consists in operation aeroions through respiratory tracts. One of conditions during the holding procedures of aeroionoinhalation is good ventilation of the procedural room (lack of dust, smoke, the increased humidity). Procedures should be carried out at air temperature apprx. 18 °.

At use of generators of aeroions of group use of patients seat around at a certain distance from the device (0,5 — 1 m). At use of aero ionizers of individual use the distance from the patient to the generator shall not exceed 10 — 20 cm. The pose of the patient shall be the most convenient for the maximum breath. It is recommended to breathe quietly, through a nose, from time to time taking deep breaths.

Local procedures of an aero ionotherapy carry out by means of the special generators creating the directed flow of aeroions on a certain site of a body surface. The method of aero ionic massage consists in «massaging» of various areas of a body a flow of unipolarly conducting air. The current of air directed at aero ionic massage to integuments contains apprx. 5,5 million ions of negative polarity. Duration of the procedure 5 — 10 min. Course of treatment of 10 — 12 procedures. Exerting impact on nerve terminations in skin, aero ionic massage reduces pain and toniziruyushche affects cardiovascular system.

S. N. Finogenov (1961) recommends the special needle electrodes to the equipment for franklinization allowing to carry out procedures local And. integument. At these procedures an electrode have at distance of 10 — 12 cm from area of influence. The local aero ionotherapy of collar area, the person, mammary glands, lumbosacral area, etc., 10 — 20 procedures on a course is applied.

During the definition of an individual dosage (amount of the inhaled aeroions) take into account the volume of inhaled air, ion concentration in it and a respiration rate. At the known concentration of aeroions (determined by ionometra) calculation of an individual dose is made by means of a lung-tester or a wet gas meter. So, if the zone of breath of the patient contains 600 thousand easy ions, then at the volume of each breath of 500 ml and 15 breaths in 1 min. the dose will make apprx. 45 billion aeroions in 10 min.

Observations show that the single procedure of an aero ionotherapy, as a rule, causes the shifts testimonial of a tendency to normalization of a functional condition of these or those bodies or systems. At patients with an idiopathic hypertensia arterial pressure can decrease — to be stopped by bronchial asthma the attack, to improve function of external respiration. At the diseases which are followed by dysfunction of a nervous system after the separate procedures A. smoothing of indicators of asymmetry of electric resistance of skin, sweating, skin temperature is observed. The listed tests can serve as criterion of correctness of purpose of polarity of aeroions and dosages at an aero ionotherapy.

Usually appoint aeroions of negative polarity; in case of adverse reaction to such procedure it is necessary to experience action of ions of an opposite sign.

Considering a possibility of adaptation to action of the increased concentration of aeroions in air, it is reasonable to increase their dose from the procedure to the procedure. It is reached by increase in duration of the procedure and approach of patients to the generator of aeroions during the use of aero ionizers and hydraeroionizers of individual appointment. The course of treatment at aeroionoinhalation consists of 10 — 30 procedures appointed daily

or every other day. Repeated courses A. are usually carried out in 3 — 6 months, at bronchial asthma — in 2 — 4 weeks. It is not recommended in one day with And. to appoint other procedures of electrotreatment.

The aero ionotherapy can be appointed as an independent method of treatment, and also in a complex with other medical actions.

Aero ionizers — generators of aeroions for artificial ionization of air. Depending on the physical factor used for receiving aeroions electric (high-voltage, crown), hydrodynamic (hydraeroionizers), radio isotope, thermionic, ultra-violet and combined distinguish aero ionizers.

The electric ionizer of A. P. Sokolov (1925) improved after A was one of the first aero ionizers created in the Soviet Union. L. Chizhevsky (1928). Ionization of air in it was reached at the expense of high-voltage (70 — 80 kV) the category from the metal sharp-pointed cores strengthened on the metal gauze — «chandelier» suspended under a ceiling. In modern electric ionizers tension on koroniruyushchy electrodes does not exceed 2,5 — 3 quarter.

Fig. 1. Electric AIR-2 aero ionizer.

Most widely use electric aero ionizers of a design of M. A. Ravich — AIR-2 (fig. 1) and X. F. Tammeta — KKI-2M. Concentration of aeroions in 20 cm from aero ionizers makes apprx. 1 — 2 million in 1 cm 3 air at their almost full unipolarity.

Fig. 2. Serpukhov-1 hydraeroionizer.

Quite big distribution was gained also by hydraeroionizers of group use — system E. A. Chernyavsky (GAI-Ch-6) and individual — Serpukhov-1 (fig. 2). Concentration of hydroaeroions during the work of GAI-Ch-6 depends on pressure of water during the spraying and makes from 20 thousand to 130 thousand negative and from 4 thousand to 25 thousand positive ions in 1 cm 3 air. During the operation of the Serpukhov-1 aero ionizer concentration of aeroions in 20 cm from the device makes apprx. 500 thousand negative and 100 thousand positive in 1 cm 3 air.

The beta and beam generator of a design of N. I. Shteynbok belongs to radio isotope aero ionizers, in Krom for ionization strontium 90 is used. The design of this aero ionizer guarantees its full radiation safety and allows to achieve high concentration of aeroions (apprx. 1 million in 1 cm 3 ) at almost full unipolarity.

In thermionic aero ionizers the effect of thermionic emission of the heated metals is used. They are applied generally to the research purposes.

The aero ionizers developed by Ya. Yu. Reynet are based on use of the ionizing ability of short-wave ultraviolet rays of a mercury-quartz lamp. This type of aero ionizers can be used for ionization of air of big rooms (at schools, hospitals, etc.). Measurement of artificial ionization of air is performed by means of counters and spectrometers of ions.

Bibliography: Aero ionization in occupational health, under the editorship of B. B. Koyransky, L., 1966; Aero ionization and hydroaero ionization in medicine, under the editorship of A. N. Obrosov, Tashkent, 1962; Vasilyev L. L. Theory and practice of treatment by conducting air, L., 1953; Katsenovich of R. A. Gidroaeroionization and hydroaero ionotherapy, Tashkent, 1966, bibliogr.; Minkh A. A. Ionization of air and its hygienic value, M., 1963, bibliogr.; Minkh A. A., Anisimov B. V. and Serova L. V. Patterns of physiological effect of conducting air, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Κβ 1, page 3, 1972, bibliogr.; Portnov F. G. Aeroions and their medical use, Riga, 1961, bibliogr.; it, Aeroionoterapiya and an electroaerosoltherapy, in book: Probl. a wedge, biophysics, under the editorship of F. G. Portnov, page 80, Riga, 1972; Chernyavsky E. A. Physicochemical and geophysical concept of atmospheric ionization, Vopr. kuror-tolite., fizioter., jsf «1, page 3, 1962; Chizhevsky A. L. Theoretical bases of operation of the elektroefflyuvialny ionizer, in book: Probl. ionifikation, under the editorship of A. L. Chizhevsky, page 39, Voronezh, 1933; BachmanC.H., McDonald R. D. a. Lorenz P. J. Some physiological effects of measured air ions, Int. J. Bio-meteorol., v. 9, p. 127, 1965; Bioclimatology, biometeorology, and aeroionothera-py, ed. by R. Gualtierotti a. o., Milano, 1968; Krueger A. P. Air ions and physiological function, J. gen. Physiol., v. 45, pt 2, p. 233, 1962; W e h n e r A. P. Electro-aerosols, air ions and physical medicine, Am er. J. phys. Med., v. 48, p. 119, 1969, bibliogr.

F. G. Portnov.