AEROBES (grech, aer air + b[ios] life) — the organisms needing for the life activity free oxygen. All higher organisms and those from the lowest which use for the existence the energy which is released at the oxidation reactions proceeding in an organism with absorption of free oxygen concern to group of aerobes. The majority of microorganisms concerns to group A. On their relation to molecular oxygen it is accepted to distinguish obligate (unconditional) and optional (conditional) A. Obligatnye A. demand access of air and do not develop in its absence. They get energy only as a result of oxidation reaction of organic matters to CO 2 and H 2 O. Group obligate And. includes saprophytes (nitrifying bacteriums, nek-ry of sulfur bacteria, you. subtilis, Azotobacter) and nek-ry pathogenic microbes (cholera vibrio, diphtheritic stick, etc.). Optional And. can live and develop in the presence of molecular oxygen and at the lowered its concentration, using at the same time the energy which is released in process fermentations (see).
The attitude of aerobes towards concentration of oxygen in air very variously. Most of them is formative on mediums at very wide limits of partial pressure of oxygen.
For the majority And. extreme concentration of oxygen, at a cut they can live, is very big: e.g., for you. subtilis the pressure partial pressure of oxygen — 10 — 15 atm. In spite of the fact that in results of researches of the relation And. to concentration of oxygen in air there are considerable discrepancies, consider that for each separate look And. there are maximum, minimum and optimum concentration of oxygen, characteristic of it, at to-rykh these organisms can live. Increase in partial pressure of oxygen above its maximum concentration leads to death of a microbe.
Bibliography: Rose 3. Chemical microbiology, the lane with English, M., 1971, bibliogr.; Schlegel G. The general microbiology, the lane with it., M., 1972; Bacteria, ed. by I. G. Gunsalus a. R. Y. Stanier, v. 1—5, N. Y. — L., 1960 — 1964.
G. V. Vygodchikov.