ADRIAN Edgar

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ADRIAN Edgar (Adrian Edgar Douglas, 1889 — 1977) is the English physiologist, the member London royal about-va (1923) and its president (1950 — 1955), the Nobel Prize laureate (1932).

Got an education at the Westminster school (London) and Trini-gi-kolledzhe Cambridge un-that (1915). Since 1937 professor, and since 1951 the rector of Triniti-k about l of l e d-zha.

Main works E. Adrian electrophysiologies of sense bodys and nervous conductors are devoted. It subjected elektrofiziol. to the analysis the nervous signals arising in receptor bodies also opened mechanisms of painful, acoustical and tactile receptions. Were studied by it fiziol. properties of nervous impulses, their speed, rhythm and pattern of carrying out. E. Adrian showed that the rhythm of irritations reproduced by this or that nervous tissue is defined by the period of absolute not excitability, i.e. the refractory phase coming after excitement (see. Reflex theory). In 1913 — 1922 he experimentally proved the law «everything or nothing» for nervous excitement and considered it as the general law for excitable fabrics. The subsequent researches of the Soviet and foreign scientists showed that the principle «everything or nothing» is not universal. E. Adrian laid the foundation for use of electronics in fiziol. researches, having developed methods of micro electrophysiologic and microsurgical researches of single nerve fibril and nerve terminations. Further improvement of these methods allowed his pupils to study sodium-potassium origins of action potential. In the next years E. Adrian was engaged in studying of electric activity of a brain and localization of functions in a cerebellum.

Nobelevskokht an award the ring tone of ohms for opening of laws of activity of neurons is conferred together with Ch. Cher.

Works: On the conduction of subnormal disturbances in normal nerve, J. Physiol. (Lond.), v. 45, p. 389, 1912—1913;

The basis of sensation, action of the sense organs, L., 1927, N. Y. — L., 1964;

The mechanism of nervous action, Philadelphia, 1932, 1959; The activity of the nerve fibers, in book: iNobel lecture delivered at Stockholm, 12-th December, 1932, p. 1, Stockholm, 1934; The physical background of perception, Oxford, 1947; Sensory integration, Liverpool, 1949.

Bibliography: Lex Prix Nobel en 1932, p. 63, Stockholm, 1934. JI. F. Kelesheva.

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