ADONIS (synonym: the adonis is spring, a spring adonis) — medicinal plant.
— a perennial herbaceous plant this. a crowfoot family (Ranunculaceae), has several straight lines, low-branchy green stalks height apprx. 40 cm. Leaves are next, sedentary, semi-amplexcaul. Flowers single golden-yellow, are located on the ends of escapes. Grows in steppe and forest-steppe regions of an average and southern strip of the European part of the USSR, the Urals, Western Siberia, in Sowing. Kazakhstan. Blossoms in April — May.
For to lay down. the purposes use an elevated part of a plant — the grass collected in a blooming period. Active ingredients of a grass of G. are glycosides among which the group of kardenolid consisting generally of glycosides of a strofantinovy row and a specific glycoside of an adonitoksin has the greatest medical value. One gram of a grass shall contain 50 — 66 frog pieces. (Ice) or 6,3 — 8 cat's units (KED). In the course of storage, especially in unfavorable conditions, activity of a grass gradually decreases therefore it is controlled annually.
On the nature of action G.'s glycosides are close to glycosides foxgloves (see) and Strophanthus. In comparison with glycosides of a foxglove G.'s glycosides are less resistant and render more bystry, but short-term action, weaker cause systolic and diastolic effects, influence a tone of a vagus nerve less, do not kumulirut at repeated introductions. And its agglucons exert the expressed calming impact on c. N of page of Kardenolida G., in particular adonitoksin and strophanthidin, reduce a physical activity of animals, have anticonvulsant effect; strophanthidin extends also stage of latency of conditioned reflexes and reduces bioelectric activity of a brain that can be considered as result of strengthening of brake process.
At a decompensation of action of the heart of G. causes the changes characteristic of action cardiac glycosides (see). The therapeutic effect occurs in the first days. After G.'s cancellation its action also quickly stops. The beneficial effect of G. at the vegetodistoniya which is followed by pains in heart is noted. Soft influence on heart and smaller danger of emergence of side effects in comparison with a foxglove allow to apply G. in those cases of a decompensation when the foxglove is badly transferred by patients. In therapeutic doses drugs G. do not change or slightly raise the ABP.
Drugs G. are appointed preferential at easy forms hron, insufficiency of heart, and also as calming and an anticonvulsant together with drugs of bromine and other sedatives at a neurasthenia, neurosises, hysteria, an acrimony and sleeplessness.
Apply in the form of infusion (Infusum herbae Adonidis vernalis) from 6 — 10 g of a grass on 200 ml of infusion (on one table. l. 3 — 5 times a day; the highest single dose at the rate on a dry grass of 1 g, daily 5 g) and as a part of Bekhterev's mixture. In the form of dry extract (Extractum Adonidis vernalis siccum) G. the adonis bromine is a part of drazhirovanny tablets (dry extract G. and potassium bromide on 0,25 g).
From G.'s grass prepare also purified neogalenical drug Adonisidum (Adonisidum, GFH, the joint venture. B), which is appointed inside on 10 — 20 drops by 2 — 3 times a day; the highest doses inside: one-time 40 drops, daily 120 drops. For introduction to a vein Adonisidum (0,5 — 1 ml) dissolve 40% of solution of glucose in 10 — 20 ml; the highest doses in a vein: one-time 1 ml, daily 2 ml. Adonisidum is released also in tablets — Adonisidum of dry (Adonisidum siccum), on 0,00075 g; appoint inside 1 tab. 2 — 4 of time a day. Adonisidum is a part of Cardiovalenum containing juice from a fresh grass of a gray erysimum, liquid extract of fruits of a hawthorn, Tinctura Valerianae, camphor and sodium bromide and box diazide and (mix of equal parts of Adonisidum and Cordiaminum); both drugs are used on 15 — 20 drops of 1 — 2 time a day.
It is usually well transferred by patients. In some cases at the use of high doses the bigeminal pulse can be observed and disturbance of functions went. - kish. path. These phenomena quickly pass after cancellation of drugs G.
See also Medicinal plants .
Bibliography: Turova A. D. Medicinal plants of the USSR and their use, M., 1974, bibliogr.
Ya. I. Hadzhay.