ADJUSTING REACTIONS

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ADJUSTING REACTIONS —

set of reflex movements, with the help to-rykh animals become on an extremity with installation of the head a cinciput up. The tonic vypryamitelny reflexes opened by R. Magnus are their cornerstone (see Magnus — Klein reflexes).

The norkh\galny pose inherent in it is characteristic of each animal, edges is defined by position of a trunk, head and extremities in space. Under natural conditions, however, normal position of a body often changes. The animal can lie on one side, on spin, move on an inclined surface up or down, etc. R. Magnus managed to investigate and describe in detail all system of reflexes, with the help to-rykh an animal is capable to be returned to normal situation from these various provisions. Labyrinth vypryamitelny reflexes clearly are shown at dekortitsirovanny animals (see the Decortication of a brain) at deprivation of vision and lack of a support for a trunk. If such animal to deprive of a support for extremities (to keep in air for a basin), then his head adopts the normal provision — a cinciput up; in the presence of a support installation of the head in normal situation is observed also at animals with the destroyed labyrinths (at the expense of reflexes from the muscles of a trunk on muscles of the head caused by asymmetrical irritation of esodic nerves of a trunk). At position of an animal on one side the head holds it normal position in space, thanks to reflexes from muscles of a trunk, but the neck at the same time turns out as if in the twisted state what is an origin of cervical reflexes of straightening. Their receptive field is made by proprioceptors of cervical muscles and joint capsules of intervertebral joints of cervical department of a backbone. Signals from these receptors cause the reflex activation of muscles of a trunk and extremities transferring a trunk to normal situation. In such At. rubles take part also tonic reflexes from the forefront of a trunk on back. They appear when the forefront of a trunk rises, following the head, and the arising twisting of lumbar department of a backbone causes the reflex tension of muscles, thanks to Krom the basin follows the forefront of a trunk. At the highest mammals take place also visual (optical) reflexes of straightening.

The centers of vypryamitelny tonic reflexes providing implementation At. rubles, are located in structures oblong and a mesencephalon. Their management of muscles of a trunk and extremities coordinated in time gives the chance to a zhivotnokhm independently to accept and hold normal situation.

At. rubles are found also in the person. At a body tilt of the person sitting blindfold there are motor reactions stabilizing the situation of the case, the head and extremities. These At. rubles are absent at patients with damages of the VIII couple of cranial nerves (see the Eighth cranial nerve), defeats basal gangliyev (see. Basal kernels), etc. As M. B. Crolles (1933) specified, the automatic movements described by it at patients with a family ataxy of Fridreykh (see the Ataxy), have much in common with At. river.

Bibliography: M. B. and Fedo's crawl

of a rov of E. A. Main neuropathological syndromes, M., 1966; Magnus P «Installation of a body, the lane with it., M. — L., 1962; Roberts T. D. M of Neurophysiology of postural mechanisms, L., and. lake, 1978.

V. S. Gurfinkel.

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