From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ADDITIONAL BODIES (accessory bodies) — educations, as a rule, repeating the anatomic structure the bodies existing in an organism. Of the lake carry to rare and it is difficult for the diagnosed malformations. Of the lake result from deviations in the course of an organogenesis; their development remains poorly studied. Cases of an accessory kidney, a pancreas, spleen, gall bladder, lung, thyroid gland and even heart are described.

In cases when D. lakes do not contain all components of the main bodies, they are called choristias or choristomas. At the same time some parts of fabrics of principal organ otjedinyatsya, chipped off and join in fabrics next, and sometimes and the remote bodies.

Of the lake can be located in the main body or out of it. As a rule, they are underdeveloped in this connection they do not possess fiziol, the function inherent to the main body, but in certain cases have normal structure and functions. Especially it belongs to exclaves of incretion (a thyroid gland, adrenal glands).

The accessory kidney exists often asymptomatically and it is found accidentally at Urografinum.

Krechmer (H. L. Kretschmer, 1931) divides all accessory kidneys into four groups depending on existence in them of ureters and their course: 1) the ureter in an accessory kidney is not found; 2) the ureter of an accessory kidney falls into an ureter of the main kidney; 3) the ureter of an accessory kidney opens in a bladder; 4) the accessory kidney has a rudimentary ureter.

At hron, nonspecific inflammatory diseases of kidneys the accessory kidney can improve a functional condition of kidneys and a liver. When the accessory kidney is the place of emergence of pathological process, there is a need of its removal.

Mikropreparat of a wall of peloric department of a stomach with elements of an additional pancreas: 1 — pancreatic islands (Langergans); 2 — a stroma of gland; 3 — a channel of gland. At the left above the scheme of localization of an additional pancreas (a black spot) in the thickness of a wall of peloric department of a stomach, is shaded a projection of a pancreas.

The additional pancreas most often is located in a wall of a stomach (fig.) and a duodenum, is more rare in a wall of a jejunum.

In most cases the additional pancreas has the structure inherent to a normal pancreas with pancreatic islands (Langergans) and output channels. In it the same can develop patol, processes, as in the main gland. Quite often additional pancreas is followed by development of a round ulcer of a stomach or a gut that can lead to bleedings. Intravital recognition of additional pancreases is difficult.

Spleniculus of hl. obr. find accidentally during an operative measure. V. I. Pavlov and B. P. Lapin (1964) described existence of the big spleniculus found at operation for an acute appendicitis. Are described torsion of a long vascular leg of a spleniculus, at Krom an operative measure, and also the impassability of intestines caused by a spleniculus was required.

The additional lung is described by V. A. Chudnosvetov and A. V. Abramov (1939) observing it in a wall of median fistula of a neck.

The additional gall bladder, a channel to-rogo merged with a channel of the main gall bladder at falling into the general bilious channel, observed Zatter and to Hirta (R. Satter, H. Hirte, 1962).

At recognition of pathological processes in D. of the lake there can be a question of their operational removal.

See also Ontogenesis , Rudimental organs .

Bibliography: Belokurov Yu. N. Case of a spleniculus of the big sizes, Surgery, No. 6, page 129, 1965; H of au owls G. E., Semisotov V. I. and Ta-chinsky S. Ya. O to an additional share of a pancreas, Vestn, hir., t. 115, No. 12, page 90,1975; Chudnosvetovv. And. and Abramov A. V. Sluchay of an additional lung in median fistula of a neck, Vestn, otorinolar., No. 5, page 98, 1939; HoessH. Akzessorische Beckenniere, Z. Urol., Bd 32, S. 562, 1938; Satter P. u. Hirte H. Doppelgallenblase mit Steinbildung in einer der beiden, Zbl. Chir., Bd 87, S. 367, 1962.

M. H. Lizanets.