ACROLEIN (acrylic aldehyde, propenal) — the elementary unsaturated aldehyde, toxic for the person. Constitutional formula:
Colorless volatile liquid with a pungent smell of rancid fat. Pier. weight 56,06, t°kip 52,4 °. A volatility (at t ° 20 °) 407 mg/l. It is well dissolved in organic solvents. It will easily be polymerized. At oxidation forms acrylic to - that. At action of strong oxidizers turns into ant and oxalic acids. It is recovered with formation of allyl alcohol.
Contact with And. it is possible in foundry production, the electrotechnical industry, in production of plastic, glues and varnishes, on soap-producing and canneries, bakeries, catering establishments where it is formed at combustion of lubricating oils, and also during the operation of internal combustion engines. Receive for the industrial purposes action on glycerin of the water taking away means. It is applied as an initial product in production of some types of the plastic which are formed at its condensation with phenol. During World War I it was applied as BOB (lachrymator).
And. irritates mucous membranes of eyes and upper respiratory tracts, possesses all-toxic action. The asthmatoid phenomena are possible. Mechanism of toxic action And. is based on a denaturation of fabric proteins that is explained by big reactivity of communication:
Small solubility And. in water promotes its penetration into deep departments of a respiratory organs; it causes severe defeats of tissue of lungs. Primary irritation of mucous membranes of respiratory tracts leads to reflex changes of c. N of page. Receipt And. in blood is followed by manifestations of all-toxic character.
It is removed And. from an organism partially through lungs in not changed look, partially with urine in the form of oxalic and ant acids.
At acute poisoning And. are noted burning in eyes, dacryagogue, the century, feeling of a scratching in a throat, cough, nausea, vomiting, a headache, dizziness swelled. Increase in excitement, rushes of blood to the head, disturbance of orientation in space and time are observed. In hard cases — cyanosis, delay of pulse, a cold snap of extremities, numbness of fingers, expansion of pupils, muting of cardiac sounds, a loss of consciousness, a burn of mucous membranes of respiratory tracts, a plethora, hemorrhages and a fluid lungs.
Threshold of perception of a smell And. 0,07 mg/m3, konts. 350 mg/m3 at 10-minute influence it is deadly to the person. Maximum allowable concentration of acrolein in air of a working zone — 0,7 mg/m3.
First aid and treatment: to take out the victim from the zone contaminated And., to provide rest, warming of a body; to de-energize purpose of calmatives (bromides, a valerian). According to indications — inhalations of oxygen, subcutaneous injections of the means stimulating breath (0,5 ml of 1% of solution of lobeline) and blood circulation (1 ml of 10% of solution caffeine-sodium benzoate, 2 ml of 20% of camphoric oil). At irritation of respiratory tracts — alkaline inhalations, codeine, mustard plasters, banks.
Prevention — fight against release of vapors A., ventilation of rooms, the filtering gas mask, systematic determination of content And. in air (colorimetric with fuksinserny to - that, benzidine, pyrogallol, phenol).
See also Aldehydes .
Bibliography: Bykhovskaya M. S., Ginzburg S. L. and Halizova O. D. Methods of definition of harmful substances in air, page 485, M., 1966; Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev, p.1, page 376, etc., L., 1971; Gusev M. I., etc. To justification of average daily maximum allowable concentration of acrolein in free air, the Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 1, page 9, 1966; Plotnikova M. M. To justification of maximum allowable concentration of acrolein in free air, in book: Maximum allowable concentrations of atmospheric pollution, under the editorship of V. A. Ryazanov, century 4, page 75, M., 1960, bibliogr.; Sinkuvene D. S. Hygienic assessment of acrolein as pollutant of free air, Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 3, page 6, 1970, bibliogr; Massot's Di G. Acroleinosis, Sci. med. ital., v. 4, p. 100, 1955, bibliogr.; Murphy S. D. Mechanism of the effect of acrolein on rat liver enzymes, Toxicol. app. Pharmacol., v. 7, p. 833, 1965, bibliogr.; Scog E. A. toxicological investigation of lower aliphatic aldehydes, Acta pbarmacol. (Kbh.), v. 6, p. 299, 1950, bibliogr.
N. K. Kulagina.