From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ACROBATICS — kind of gymnastic exercises; independent sport. Acrobatic exercises are among: various jumps, somersaults, revolutions, a somersault (turn in air through the head forward or back at a jump) which are carried out on a floor (an acrobatic path) and shells (a trampoline, a springboard, etc.); exercises in balance, racks, twine, supports, etc.; exercises with tossing and catching of partners, etc.

And. is valuable means of physical training; acrobatic exercises widely apply as special supportive application in gymnastics, a diving, soccer, basketball, etc. Acrobatic exercises develop force, coordination of movements, flexibility and possession of a body in air without support, cultivate courage and determination.

Development of flexibility of a body in the course of the occupations And. owing to the big amplitude of movements it is connected with increase in mobility of joints of a backbone and extremities, and also with more perfect coordination of functions of antagonistic muscles, their tone and active relaxation. Acrobatic racks promote formation of a correct posture, improvement of functions of organs of equilibrium, orientation in space at any position of a body.

Systematic occupations And. increase stability of vegetative and motive and touch reactions, train a vestibular analyzer, adaptations of an organism to redistribution of blood under the influence of inertial (centrifugal) forces promote. All this allows to use And. for special physical training of parachutists and astronauts.

Children can begin to be engaged in Ampere-second of 10 — 11 years, and to participate in sports competitions on And. — not earlier than 12 — 13 years.

Medical control and the most characteristic injuries at occupations And. the same, as in gymnastics; respect for sanitary and hygienic norms on places of occupations is necessary. For the prevention of possible injuries it is necessary to watch an appropriate condition of shells and paths for jumps. Important also observance of rules of an insurance and self-insurance; during the performance of difficult exercises use of special safety harnesses is necessary (safety belt). See also Gymnastics .

Bibliography: Gymnastics, under the editorship of A. T. Brykin, page 326, M., 1971; Kukolevsky G. M. and Grayevskaya N. D. Fundamentals of sports medicine, M., 1971; Fomin N. A. and Filin V. P. Age bases of physical training, page 123, M., 1972.

V. A. Makarov.