ACONITINE (Aconitinum) — the alkaloid received from tubers and roots of monk's-hood (Aconitum napellus, Aconitum Songoricum). Chemically represents atsetplbenzoilakonin, C 34 H 47 O 11 N.
Crystal And. it is almost water-insoluble (1:4500), is difficult alcohol-soluble, we will easily dissolve in chloroform. Drug is well soaked up in blood. During the drawing on skin causes an itch with the subsequent anesthesia. Resorptive action And. the hl is shown. obr. in disturbance of a heart rhythm (bradycardia, premature ventricular contraction) and urezheniya of breath. These effects arise owing to change of excitability and conductivity of heart, excitement of the centers of vagus nerves and oppression of a respiratory center under the influence of A. Urezheniye of breath occurs also owing to irritation of the terminations of a vagus nerve in lungs. In a crust, time to treatment it is not applied because of high toxicity. Property A. to cause the centers of heterotropic excitement use for receiving models of arrhythmias.
See also Medicinal plants .
Aconitine in the medicolegal relation. In court. - the medical practician A. matters as poison which can be used in criminal intents or lead to accidental poisonings. Characteristic clinical symptoms: feeling of a scratching in a mouth, a gullet and a stomach, numbness and an itch of skin, pain in the field of nervous trunks, hypersalivation, an asthma, delay of pulse, narrowing of pupils, sometimes confusion of consciousness. The pathoanatomical picture has no characteristic signs. The chemical and toxicological analysis for the purpose of detection And. in internals it is complicated. The pharmakognostichesky research of the remains of parts of a plant and data of chemical analysis of tincture of substance is of great importance if it is presented as a material evidence. Allocation And. from biol. material it is made by means of the alcohol acidified wine or oxalic to - that, and the subsequent extraction of the basis And. chloroform. From specific reactions apply microcrystallic reactions with solution of sodium carbonate and potassium permanganate.
Bibliography: Bobkov Yu. G. A role of an afferent impulsation in the mechanism of the vegetative reactions caused by aconitine and veratrine Bulletin ekspery. biol. and medical, t. 66, No. 9, page 55, 1968, bibliogr.; Tsognemekh Zh. Comparative activity of new antiarrhytmic substances at akonitinovy poisoning of heart, in book: Questions of pharmacological regulation of action of the heart, under the editorship of A. N. Kudrin, page 139, M., 1969; Shvaykova M. D. Judicial chemistry, M., 1965.
V. K. Lepakhin; M. D. Shvaykova (court.).