From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ACHORION (Greek achör dandruff, crusts) — a generic name of dermatomitset, activators of a favus of the person and animals in classification Saburo (R. A. J. Sabouraud, 1910). Sort A. (across Saburo) combined botanical different types of parasitic fungi on the general property to form the specific dry saucer-shaped yellow crusts penetrated by a hair (skutula) on skin. In the modern classifications based on botanical signs of cultures of fungi, a sort A. no. The types of A. schoenleinii, A. gallinae, A. quinckeanum entering this sort are carried to the sort Trichophyton Malmsten, 1845; A. gypseum — to the sort Microsporum Gruby, 1843. However in practice of medicine and veterinary science the term «Shenleyn's achorion» as the name of the activator of a favus remains.

Fig. 1. Colonies of achorion of Shenleyn on Saburo's circle.

1. Causative agent of diseases of the person Trichophyton schoenleinii (Lebert, 1845; Langeron, Milochevitch, 1930; synonym: Achorion schoenleinii Remak, 1845; Grubyella schoenleinii Ota, Langeron, 1-923; Arthrospora schoenleinii Grigorakjs, 1925, etc.) affects skin, hair, nails, occasionally regional limf, nodes; isolated cases of visceral defeats at sharply weakened people are described. The culture of a fungus forms slowly growing wrinkled, tserebriformny, the colonies towering over the level of a medium, which are partially shipped in it (fig. 1).

Surface of colony leathery, wax-like, later slightly poroshkovaty, seldom velvety; color — from cream to brown, a reverse side yellowish. The fungus eats organic compounds. Grows on Saburo's circle at t ° 25 — 37 ° (see. Saburo of the environment ).

Fig. 2. A microstructure of culture of achorion of Shenleyn (expansion on the ends of a form of cervine horns).

To Guinea pigs takes root hardly. Immunological maloaktiven. Microstructure of culture: a mycelium of irregular shape with the expansions on the ends reminding candelabrums, cervine horns (fig. 2); it is a lot of chlamydospores, there are no macroconidiums, microconidiums are rare.

In the nature this type of a fungus does not meet, its carriers are people, patients favus (see). In the USSR meets seldom; makes considerable percent of fungal flora in Africa, China, Spain, Portugal, Turkey.

Fig. 3. A microscopic picture of the hair affected with Shenleyn's achorion (air traps are visible).

Hair are surprised as endothrix: in a hair freely lying threads of a mycelium (septirovanny, neseptirovanny, club-shaped), groups polymorphic a dispute, air traps (fig. 3) are found. The hair affected with a fungus under Wood's lamp shine pale green light. In scales of skin, scrapings of nails polymorphic threads of a mycelium are found; the skutula which are formed on skin consist from a dispute of a fungus, elements of pus, blood, cells of epidermis.

2. Causative agents of diseases of animals: 1) Trichophyton quinckeanum Zopf, Mac Leod Muende, 1940 (synonym: Achorion quinckeanum Quincke, 1885; Microsporum muris Dodge, 1935, etc.) meets everywhere; causes an epizooty among mice and rats, strikes cats, dogs, sheep, horses, it is rare — the person; 2) Trichophyton gallinae (Megnin) Silva, Benham, 1952 (synonym: Achorion gallinae Sabouraud, 1910, etc.) causes a favus in hens and other birds, very seldom strikes people; 3) Microsporum gypseum (Bodin, 1907) Guiart, Grigorakis, 1928 (synonym of Achorion gypseum Bodin, 1907; Microsporum fulvum Sabouraud, 1910, etc.) treats geofilny fungi, is eurysynusic in soils of the whole world. Occasionally strikes animals and the person.

Other types of achorion (A. violaceum, A. caninum, etc.) are options of main types and epidemiological value have no.

See also Fungi parasitic .

Bibliography: Ariyevich A. M. and Stepanishcheva 3. G. Trichomycoses, Mno-gotomn. the management on mikr., wedge, and epid, infekts. Bol., under the editorship of H. N. Shue-kova-Verezhnikova, t. 10, page 284, M., 1966; Handbuch der Haut-und Geschlechtskrankheiten, hrsg. v. J. Jadassohn, Ertränzung-werk, Bd 4, T. 3, B., 1962, Bibliogr.; H a-z e n E. L., Gordon M. A. a. Reed F. C. Laboratory identification of pathogenic fungi simplified, Springfield, 1970; V a n-breuseghem R. Guide pratique de mycologie m^dicale et of v6t£rinaire, P., 1966.

A. M. Ariyevich, 3. G. Stepanishcheva.