ACETYLENE (synonym: ethyne), HC = CH. And. in usual conditions — colorless gas with a slight smell of ether, t°kip 83,8 °. It is slightly soluble in water, it is good — in acetone. Mixes of Ampere-second air and oxygen are explosive with the broad range of concentration (with air from 2 to 81 about. %, with oxygen from 2,8 to 78 about. %).
And. it is applied at autogenous to welding (see) and cutting of metals, in vitro, for synthesis of many chemical products: a nitrile acrylic to - you, trichloroethylene, duprene rubber, acetaldehyde, vinyl of chloride, etc.
And. receive from calcium carbide, oil products, hydrocarbons of natural gas. Carbide And. contains a number of highly toxic impurity (hydrogen phosphide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, hydrogen selenide, carbon monoxide etc.) which can come to air of production rooms.
Production And. from natural gas by method of thermooxidizing pyrolysis or electrocracking in comparison with a carbide method has advantage both in technical and economic, and in a dignity. - a gigabyte. relation (continuity of technological process, automation of control and management). Despite it, workers can have contact with the toxic impurity which are contained in technical And. The main professional harm in production And. this way is dimethyl formamide (see), applied to cleaning And. from impurity. Also air pollution is noted by carbon monoxide. During the receiving And. electrocracking of natural gas the air environment is polluted by mix of toxicants: hydrocianic to - that, naphthalene, dimethyl formamide and products of its hydrolysis (ant to - that, dimethylamine), benzene, hydrocarbons.
In a human body And. arrives through respiratory tracts. In the concentration which are usually found under production conditions, And. it is not toxic. In big concentration has narcotic effect and causes air hunger owing to reduction of the oxygen content in inhaled air. The case of fatal poisoning is described And. On opening hemorrhage and hypostasis in the right lung are found. The prof. of intoxication called by influence of harmful impurity to are possible And. During the studying of the state of health of workers of this production functional disturbances of a nervous system were revealed.
At acute poisoning in couples technical And., a cut can take place at emergencies on production, the headache, the general weakness, an asthma, difficulty of breath are noted. In hard cases are observed the sharp excitement which is replaced by a maniacal state, nonsense, hallucinations, a loss of consciousness, lack of reaction from pupils and their immovability, coma. During the escaping of coma all clinical symptoms quickly pass.
First aid: to bring the victim to fresh air, to warm a body hot-water bottles. At disturbance of breath inhalation of oxygen in alternation with Carbogenum is shown (every 10 — 15 min.). At an apnoea it is necessary to apply an artificial respiration immediately. Introduction of oil 20% of solution of camphor subcutaneously — 2 ml, 10% of solution of caffeine — 1 ml is necessary. Strong sweet tea, coffee is recommended. At excitement to do enemas of 2% of solution of Chlorali hydras (50 — 100 ml), inside — Tinctura Valerianae on 20 — 30 drops, barbamyl on 0,3 g on reception.
Prevention of the prof. of poisonings And. comes down to careful sealing of the production equipment, reduction of terms of repair work, implementation of packless fittings, the equipment of the local exhaust ventilation from polluters of the air environment, replacement of toxic dimethyl formamide with water or a low-toxic metilpirrolidon. It is necessary to apply the filtering gas mask to protection of a respiratory organs. Recreational actions are regulated also by safety regulationss and production sanitation.
Bibliography: Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev, p.1, page 37, L., 1971; Zhitkova A. S. and Kutyin S. I. Definition of acetylene in air of the industrial enterprises, the Plant, laborat., t. 15, No. 6, page 674, 1949; Lebedev H.H. Chemistry and technology of the main organic and petrochemical processing, page 104, M., 1971; M about the Tax Code e in and the p A. K. Occupational health in production of acetylene (electrocracking of natural gas), the Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 1, page 24, 1967; Occupational diseases, under the editorship of A. A. Letavet, page 265, M., 1973; J about n e s A. T. Fatal gassing in an acetylene manufacturing plant, Arch, environm. Hlth, v. 1, p. 417, 1960.
V. S. Filatova.