ACETONE

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ACETONE (Latin acetum vinegar; dimethyl ketone; CH 3 COCH 3 ) — organic matter; the simplest representative of a class of ketones. In a human body and animals And. is an intermediate product of a metabolism: is defined as a part of ketone bodies.

Acetone — colorless transparent liquid with a characteristic smell; possesses a big volatility, mixes up with water, alcohol, ether and the majority of organic solvents. And. easily ignites; t ° kip 56,24 °, t ° pl — 95,35 °, d 4 20 - 0,7908, n D 20 - 1,3558. In small amounts And. contains in some plants and essential oils. In the industry And. receive hl. obr. catalytic dehydrogenation of the isopropyl alcohol received in the course of oil refining. Significant amounts And. are formed in the course of fermentation of sugars under the influence of you. acetobutylicus or you. macerans (acetonic fermentation), and also at dry distillation of a tree. And. has big reactivity. With hydroxylamine, a hydrazine and semicarbazide the crystal oximes, hydrazones and semicarbazones serving for identification turn out And, And. is a feed stock for synthesis of an iodoform, chloroform, and also many other organic compounds, napr, ketone, an isoprene, artificial fragrant substances (ionones), etc. And. it is widely applied as solvent of varnishes, films, nitro - and cellulose acetates, acetylene etc.

Effect of acetone on an organism

And. possesses exciting and narcotic action, strikes c. N of page; toxic effect in connection with ability And. to collect in an organism depends not only on concentration, but also on time of action. Poisoning And. is followed by feeling of heat, dizziness, faints; there are conjunctivitis, dermatitis, and also katara of upper respiratory tracts.

In industrial conditions during the long work with And. chances hron, poisonings.

As a rule, in a human body there are only traces And., but at various disturbances of exchange (e.g., a diabetes mellitus) And. appears in blood and urine of patients (see. Acetonemia , Acetonuria ).

And. in urine or other liquids qualitatively determine by reactions with Sodium nitroprussidum (the red coloring in alkaline condition which is not disappearing at acidulation acetic to - that is Legal's test) and an iodoform by training with solution of iodine in iodide potassium — Liben's test.

Maximum allowable concentration in air of production rooms — 200 mg/m 3 .

See also Ketone bodies , Ketones , Solvents .

Acetone in the medicolegal relation

Acetone in the medicolegal relation matters at acute poisonings, napr, at its use as substitute of alcohol. During the opening: smell And., symptoms of asphyxia, hypostasis and a plethora of a brain and its covers, hypostasis and a plethora of lungs, hemorrhages went to a mucous membrane. - kish. path; microscopically — granular dystrophy of a myocardium, liver, kidneys.

Court. - is defined by a chemical research in a brain, a spleen, a liver, lungs, kidneys.


Bibliography: Vaysberger A., etc. Organic solvents, the lane with English, page 128, M., 1958; Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev, p.1, page 389, L., 1971; Fizer L.i Fizer M. Organic chemistry, the lane with English, t. 1, M., 1969.

M. A. Cheltsova, Ya. S. Smusin (court. - medical).

Яндекс.Метрика