ACCUMULATOR PRODUCTION, occupational health. The accumulator — the device for accumulation of electrical energy based on chemical interaction of electrolyte and the electrodes shipped in it during the passing of direct electric current.
There are several types of accumulators: lead (acid), iron-nickel and cadmium-nickel (alkaline). Accumulators are widely used in various fields of the national economy: in the automotive and electrotechnical industry, on railway, marine and air transport etc.
The attention of hygienists and pathologists is deserved by production of lead accumulators at which production yellow lead, minium, metal lead, antimony are used, sulfuric to - that. Production of lead accumulators includes the following workshops: lead powder, foundry, pastonamazochny, electrochemical and assembly.
In the workshop of lead powder in the automated hermetic mills crushing of chushka, grind of lead balls and oxidation of lead powder by a purge is made by oxygen of tanks of mills. For fight against dust, plumbiferous, the system of mills shall work under depression and shall be equipped with the exhaust ventilation. The thrown-out air is exposed to two-level cleaning in scrubbers with moistening. Ready lead powder is squeezed out in the rezinotkanny containers which are hermetically connecting to a mouth of the bunker store.
In the foundry workshop production of lattices and other lead details of the accumulator on modern productions is automated. Manual operations take place only during the cleaning of roughnesses and removal of flows of metal in sections of lattices.
In the pastonamazochny workshop produce paste from oxides of lead-minium, litharge and lead powder which move in the mixer the shnekovy conveyor which is under depression. In mixers there is a hashing of all loose materials to a chamois to - that and water. Mixers, pastonamazyvayushchy machines are automated, equipped with the local exhaust ventilation. Lead lattices to pastonamazyvayushchy cars move the conveyor. Drying chambers and places of renting of lattices from the conveyor are equipped with exhaust vent systems. In pastonamazochny workshops for fight against dust of lead and its connections the system of water irrigation is applied to moistening of air, a floor and barriers.
In the electrochemical workshop formation of plates is made; at the same time by electrolysis on plates there is a formation of active agents (lead dioxyde and spongy lead). Plates immerse in tanks with a chamois to - that. Filling of tanks with a chamois to - that is automated. The following stage — unloading of plates, their drying in the conveyor ventilated drying units at a temperature at the beginning of a cycle 200 °, at the exit — 20 °. Division of plates is made by special cars. The dust which is formed at this process is removed local exhaust suctions with afterpurification of the air which is thrown out outside. Collecting accumulators is made on the conveyor.
Professional harm. Thanks to mechanization and automation of the main productions danger of impact on an organism of working profvrednost in modern And. the item is consolidated to a minimum. Despite it, almost at all technological processes dust of lead and its connections can get to air of production rooms (see Lead). In the electrochemical workshop, in addition to lead, in air vapors of sulphuric acid can be emitted (see). Also burns of a body acid, a flame or splashes of molten metal are possible (see. Burns ).
Prevention. Along with technical measures which are stated in the characteristic of workshops are important also medical - a dignity. actions. Observance of measures of personal hygiene, carrying out sanitation of an oral cavity (see), preliminary c periodic medical examinations is necessary (1 time in 6 months for the workers occupied on production of lead accumulators, and 1 times in 12. mine. for the workers occupied on their repair). Workers are provided with protective overalls, individual means of protection, additional food. It is recommended to accept 8 — 10 g of pectin in the form of fruit jelly or a concentrate of pectin with tea. The shortened working hours, additional issue and earlier retirement are provided.
Contraindications to employment: all diseases of blood and a secondary anemia (Hb is lower than 14 g of % for men and 12 g of % for women); hron. diseases of a liver; nephrite, nephrosis, nephrosclerosis; diseases of cardiovascular system (hypertension, stenocardia); endarterpit; peptic ulcer of a stomach and duodenum; expressed hron. colitis and coloenteritis; organic diseases of c. N of page, including epilepsy; hron. diseases of a peripheral nervous system; glaucoma, diseases of an optic nerve and retina; mental diseases; disturbances of ovarian and menstrual function with bent to bleeding; the expressed dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (neurocirculatory dystonia); diseases of closed glands with permanent disturbance of functions.
See also Poisonings , table.
Bibliography: Kolchina G. V. and Ishchuk I. G. Some questions of occupational health in production of alkaline accumulators, in book: Factors of extra highway of the environment and their value for health of the population, under the editorship of A. I. Stolmakov, century 2, page 35, Kiev. 1970; Friedland I. G. The guide to medical examinations of workers on productions and in professions with harmful substances, M., 1950, bibliogr.
S. S. Schaefer.