ACCLIMATIZATION

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ACCLIMATIZATION — adaptation of plants, animals and the person to climatic conditions, new to them. And. is a special case of adaptation to a complex of external climatic factors (see. Adaptation , Climatophysiology ).

Development of ability to And. it is caused by the course of the evolutionary development connected with the changing climate of the previous geological eras and existing in a crust. time climatic zones of the globe. Acclimatization — the complex long process of individual and specific adaptation including morphological, physiological, biochemical and biophysical reactions.

Acclimatization of plants and animals it is characterized not only by survival and adaptation of the moved individuals, but also normal development in a new habitat of succeeding generations. Distinguish true And., followed by change of genetic structure of a look, and naturalization when physiological changes are in limits of normal deviations.

Acclimatization can be natural and artificial, organized by the person. On Earth there is a large number of the acclimatized species of plants and animals. For successful And. hybridization and selection is of great importance. These receptions allow to grow up morozo-, zasukho-, wind-resistant and high-yielding crops, and also high-performance and economic and valuable breeds of animals.

Success And. depends on a right choice of a look and conditions of the area. At the same time are taken into account not only climatic factors, but also difficult biocenological bonds of animals and plants among themselves. Besides, it is considered that difficult conditions And. can reduce productivity of crops and value of animals.

Acclimatization of the person — the complex social and biological process depending on climatic, social and economic, hygienic and psychological factors. During last historical eras at considerable geographic isolation of certain human settlements climatic factors during long influence exerted a certain impact on morpho-physiological, constitutional and racial signs. In a crust, time And. the person is carried by hl. obr. lines of naturalization. Reactions And. have a hereditary basis, they form since the childhood and concern all regulating systems of an organism. Modern means of bystry movement increase tension of adaptive reactions. Process And. it is shown by the general and private lines of adaptation, specific to this or that climate. Specificity of processes And. is defined by those factors of the environment most of which differ from conditions of dwelling in the former residence. In southern latitudes — it is hl. in the way of heat, in the north — cold, insufficiency of ultra-violet radiation of the sun, polar day and polar night, a lack of vegetable food stuffs; in mountain areas — decrease in atmospheric pressure and partial tension of oxygen in inhaled air; at big heights — excess ultra-violet radiation of the sun and cold.

In initial phases A. the general is decrease in working capacity, deterioration in health, an indisposition. In process of its development adverse manifestations gradually are weakened and replaced by increase in functionality of an organism. Respectively also the general incidence decreases, edges at first can be raised.

From And. to an environment it is necessary to distinguish processes of physiologic adaptation to artificial production factors of the environment, e.g. to the increased atmospheric pressure in devices for deep-water immersion, to work in hot workshops or refrigerators. For the characteristic of physiological shifts in similar conditions as well as to local influences (e.g., cooling of hands and legs at fishermen, fish cutters, etc.), in literature the term acclimation, or local is sometimes applied And.

Acclimatization by a frigid climate in a zone of a taiga and the tundra (from 60 °C. highway), especially Far North, it is connected with sharply cooling factors and geographical features of the area. Here the long severe winter (air temperature in certain areas to — 60 °, strong winds) is combined with polar night and ultra-violet insufficiency within half a year. Space radiation and magnetic indignations are a little raised.

For our country development of huge uninhabited spaces in northern areas and in the Polar region has exclusive value. Big difference concerning development of Northern lands in comparison with southern consists in the low density of indigenous people in these areas. Therefore for economic development of the North an indispensable condition is resettlement on a constant residence of a large number of people from densely inhabited central regions. In an agio to emphasize essentially excellent approach to this task which for the first time is carried out in our country. Still F. Engels in Anti-Dyuringe said that only socialist society will be able to place the industry and agricultural production over all country in the most harmonious way and besides with the full accounting of interests of public hygiene. Formation of adaptive reactions in severe conditions of Far North is characterized by dominance of brake nervnoreflektorny reactions, weakening of thermal control, delay of skin and vascular reaction to cooling. Easing of intensity of blood circulation, a metabolism is possible. Most clearly these signs are shown during twilight lighting and polar night. They are aggravated with conditions of ultra-violet starvation (see. Light starvation ) and avitaminosis (see. Vitamin deficiency ), to the Crimea children are especially sensitive.

During polar night it is quite often noted slowed down, depression and drowsiness, and during polar day — the general excitement, the increased working capacity. In both cases to a greater or lesser extent there is a disturbance of daily rhythmics of physiological functions, the general duration and structure of a dream. Further there is an increase in reactivity, processes of thermal control amplify. At the people working in the open air and who are exposed to considerable cooling, the metabolism can increase by 15 — 20%. Gradually these reactions are leveled. At the same time reactions of heat generation Become more mobile, intensive and corresponding to extent of cooling, reaction of recovery of skin temperature by more bystry, ability of deduction of own heat of a body increases due to reflex redistribution of blood. The threshold of cold sensitivity goes down, electric activity of skeletal muscles decreases, i.e. the functional reserve of protective forces of an organism raises, involuntary reduction of muscles occurs at higher extent of cooling. Resistance to considerable cooling without pathophysiological reactions increases. These reactions And. come at the alien population of Far North approximately in 2 — 3. In the areas located to the south of the Polar circle, And. comes quicker.

In this regard the incidence which is sharply increased in the first 1 — 2 years connected with factors of cooling and change of food, disturbance of a usual work-rest schedule considerably decreases.

Process And. in the conditions of the North it is possible to divide into 3 phases (see the scheme).

Scheme of a periodization of process of acclimatization in the north

Initial stage And. — the first, approximate, a phase, in a cut, except the general block, occurs a nek-swarm decrease in gas exchange, blood circulation and working capacity. Soon there comes the second phase — reorganization of a dynamic stereotype, a stage of «accident rate», or a phase of high reactivity — «stimulation of physiological functions». In this phase if there is no pathological reactivity, psychological excitement, increase in standard metabolism, strengthening of activity of a sympathetic part of the nervous system prevail, activity endocrine, enzymatic, cardiovascular, respiratory and other physiological systems of an organism is stirred up. High functional activity of the regulating systems provides the adaptive reactions directed to maintenance of constancy of internal environment of an organism. In this phase at high expenditure of energy resources differentiation of adaptive opportunities of an organism is still poorly expressed, working capacity remains insufficiently high. In 25 — 30 days (or more) stay in unusual climate there comes the third phase — a phase of alignment, «ekonomization», or normalization. Level of gas exchange is leveled at a high oxygen utilization quotient of inhaled air, the minute volume of heart at high value of a stroke output increases, reserve opportunities of the functioning systems raise. Nonspecific resistance, endurance and operability of an organism increases though degree And. remains still understable. If at this time the person is returned to climatic conditions, former, more usual for it, again, then rather quickly there comes reacclimatization, edges develops approximately on the same phases of adaptation. If the organism remains in climatic conditions, new to it, then gradually there comes the period resistant, or full, And., which forms for years and generations.

In the second phase manifestation not only physiological, on and pathophysiological reactivity is possible. It can arise owing to insufficiency of adaptation opportunities at children's and advanced age, and also owing to weakening of adaptive forces of an organism various diseases or when external climatic factors on the intensity are excessive, extreme, exceeding adaptation opportunities of an organism. Pathological reactivity can sharply proceed as a stressful state, or to develop gradually as a dizadaptatsponny meteoroneurosis (see. Klimatopatologiya ).

In manifestation of pathological reactivity the burdening factors, such as disturbance of a usual way of life, negative emotions, deterioration a dignity are of great importance. - a gigabyte. conditions, disturbances of food, overfatigue, etc. Moving to new, more difficult climatic conditions in the presence of these or those diseases can be followed by various frustration according to nosological forms of a disease. At pathological reactivity the second and third phases of adaptation are poorly expressed, and in time — are considerably stretched.

Demographic researches show that the complex of evidence-based social and hygienic actions for creation favorable a condition of life, work and rest in geographical regions of a frigid climate favorably influences process And.

For the areas located to the north 52 °C. highway, is offered to build premises with a South vost. or South zap. orientation (it is allowed vost. and zap. — see. the Design of the inhabited places ). During the rationing of a microclimate of rooms air temperature is offered as norm: in the winter 22 °, in the summer 19e; for compensation of ultra-violet starvation use of the fluorescent lighting added with erythematous lamps is recommended.

The food allowance of the population of the North shall exceed on caloric content for 10 — 15% a diet of inhabitants of a midland and contain more protein and fat. It is necessary to consider also increased need for polyneuramins conditions of northern climate. Overalls of workers for winter works shall have warm and wind-shelter properties in the open air not to allow overcooling of an organism (see. Cooling of an organism ).

At the organization of health care in the conditions of the North the attention shall be paid to improvement of system of selection (for health reasons) of the people directed to the North, to special events for creation of working conditions for simplification and acceleration of process And. the arriving persons, and also to medical service of the population by the dispensary principle. Period And. the people having vascular and other diseases (respiratory and digestive systems, with disturbances in the psychoemotional sphere, etc.), it is longer, connected with various complications and, therefore, is followed by falloff of working capacity. At the same time all complex of climatic conditions of a zone of a taiga and the tundra allows to use it for rest, tourism and a hardening of an organism.

Acclimatization by a temperate climate of the geographic latitudes located between a polar and tropical belt does not make for the person of great difficulties. However movement in this extensive zone by each ten degrees in the width direction demands devices to the thermal and ultra-violet conditions of the area. Movement in the longitudinal direction breaks the usual mode of the daily periodical press.

The northerners who arrived to an average zone experience overheating in the summer, and southerners in the winter — overcooling. At the same time many people find in the moderate climatic zone for themselves temporary or constant relief from severe climatic conditions of the North and from the exhausting heat of the South.

Acclimatization to hot climate of subtropical and tropical dry and wet zones (from 46 °C. highway below) it is connected with the phenomena of overheating, redundancy of ultra-violet radiation, in a zone of deserts — with the phenomena of an angidremiya or a desert disease (see. Overheating of an organism , Thermal shock ).

Process And. to hot climate is followed by reactions of strengthening of a thermolysis by expansion of peripheral blood vessels, and also evaporation. At the same time a little heat generation decreases.

The major factors defining impact of climate of subtropics on the person are: the high temperature of air close to body temperature, and sometimes and exceeding it; high intensity of a straight line and the reflected solar radiation; in dry subtropics — the sharp temperature variations of air reaching 20 — 25 ° within a day and 50 ° during the season; in humid subtropics — high relative humidity of free air.

At a temperature of fresh air temperatures of a skin surface air are lower, coming to contact with the surface of skin, heats up and at the same time its moisture capacity raises. There is a so-called physiological deficit of saturation, thanks to Krom evaporation of the sweat covering skin is facilitated and accelerates. It does not occur if the body surface flows round a hot and humid air. Then the last way of a thermolysis, physically possible for an organism, to external environment by means of evaporation of moisture practically is almost completely blocked.

The difficulty of a thermolysis or a state close to an overheat is a consequence of influence of the listed above factors. The usual complex of physiological reactions at the state menacing with an overheat is as follows: falloff of a muscle tone; redistribution of blood between internals and surface fabrics in favor of the last, increase in sweating (to 5 — 11 l a day); decrease in a diuresis; pachemia and hypochloraemia; braking of secretory and evakuatorny function of the digestive device; increase of breath at reduced ventilation of alveolar space; increase of pulse and increase in minute volume of heart; frustration of a dream. Sharp deterioration in health and decrease in physical and intellectual effeciency is result of the shifts stated above.

Process And. in dry and humid subtropics consists in change of one thermoregulatory reactions by others, less reducing efficiency of the person. So, considerable weakening of a muscle tone is replaced by the general decrease of the activity of a thyroid gland leading to decrease in level of standard metabolism by 10 — 20%; difficulty of blood circulation because of its condensation is compensated by strengthening of cardiac performance and vasodilatation that leads to falling of arterial pressure (on 15 — 25 mm of mercury.); efficiency of sweating due to stimulation of low-active sweat glands and change of chemical composition of sweat, enrichment by its fatty acids promoting reduction of surface intention and merge of separate drops in a solid film of moisture amplifies.

The hot arid climate leads to difficulty of regulation of a water salt metabolism of an organism, but promotes increase in a thermolysis by evaporation from skin. Consumption of liquid increases that creates the raised load of cardiovascular system.

In a hot humid climate evaporation of sweat is at a loss; in these conditions the thermolysis goes hl. obr. by thermal radiation with considerable expansion of peripheral vessels.

On a measure And. in the conditions of hot climate of a deviation in neuroendocrinal regulation are leveled, thermoregulatory processes become stabler and corresponding to intensity of thermal influence. Endurance to high temperatures of external environment at healthy people becomes rather high. The metabolism is established on datum level, the same treats other physiological functions. Arterial pressure usually is established on lower sizes of datum level. The corneous layer of skin is thickened, there is a considerable pigmentation (suntan) weakening excess action of ultra-violet radiation.

In especially hot days or hours the metabolism decreases, appears an atony a little, function of digestion goes down. At fall of temperature of air all these deviations are quickly leveled, than relative constancy of internal environment and normal working capacity is provided. In process And. there is an improvement of regulation of a water balance, thirst therefore the body temperature and pulse rate increase not so strongly as at first decreases (see. Drinking mode ).

Already for the first 3 — 4 weeks. And. by a heat pulse during the work decreases on 20 — 30 ud. in 1 min., and body temperature is at 0,5 — 1 °. However for resistant And. longer time estimated for years is necessary.

Cardiovascular insufficiency, gastritises, colitis, a peptic ulcer, a hyperthyroidism, insufficiency of function of adrenal glands, etc. belong to medical contraindications for accommodation in a zone of subtropics and tropics. For persons with damages of kidneys the arid hot climate can be medical since the strengthened sweating to a certain extent reduces load of the renal device.

In dry subtropics the extreme hygienic importance sun-protection devices (blinds, a sun blind, marquises, etc.) get, architectural and planning actions (preferential the width orientation of buildings, gardening and flood of territories). The change of the mode of work, food and rest consisting in division of the working period into two parts with big (4 — 6 hours) a break in the hottest afternoon hours, can play a positive role in postponement of the beginning of works for earlier morning hours, in reception of the main amount of food in later hours. Climatic conditions of a subtropical zone are used for a sanatorium therapy of various diseases.

Acclimatization to conditions of mountain climate is connected with peculiar features of the sublime area. In the medical relation distinguish climate of low mountains (500 — 1000 m above sea-level), averages — subalpine (1000 — 1500 m above sea-level) and Alpine (1500 — 2000 m above sea-level) zones, high mountains (it is higher than 2000 m above sea-level). And in South America in some places people constantly live in Asia at the height up to 5000 m.

The major factor of mountain climate operating on various regulating systems of a human body is the lowered atmospheric pressure and the related low partial pressure of oxygen. With increase in height of the area also other climatic factors sharply change: intensity of ultra-violet radiation of the sun increases, considerably increases ionization of air (see), temperature goes down, absolute and relative humidity decreases, the gradient of electric potential changes, electric conductance of air increases. The area above sea level is higher, the more intensively action of the above-stated complex and the more difficultly proceeds

A. V process different klimato-geographical areas a combination physical. and chemical factors of mountain climate even at the same heights happens various therefore and in the nature of acclimatization reaction some distinctions are observed what it is possible to be convinced by comparison of the data obtained in the conditions of the Caucasus and the massif of Central Asia of.

Character and duration And. in the conditions of average and highlands depend not only on a complex of mountain factors, but also on a reference functional state and reserve opportunities of various regulating systems of a human body and its reactivity. If at natives of mountain areas movement in the vertical direction affects function of cardiovascular system, bodies of external respiration and a hemopoiesis a little, then at inhabitants of the plain moving to mountains is followed much by the expressed shifts from the specified systems. Higher sensitivity to mountain climate at people with functional disturbances from various regulating systems of an organism. At such persons the first signs of acclimatization reaction are observed at rather small heights (500 — 600 m above sea-level), And. lasts longer, the upper bound of adaptation ability is considerably reduced.

Duration of the first phase A. in the conditions of highlands can be various (from several days to 1 month) also depends on height of the area and a functional condition of an organism. The significant role is played at the same time by such physiological mechanisms as rational redistribution of blood; the haemo concentration promoting increase in oxygen capacity of blood; strengthening of activity of such enzymes as glutathione, catalase, karboangidraza; increase in affinity of hemoglobin to oxygen and shift of curve dissociation of oxyhemoglobin to the left in an upper part and to the right in the bottom curve. In the same phase disintegration of nek-ry quantity of erythrocytes with education can be observed hematinic principles (see), exerting the stimulating impact on the hemopoietic function of marrow. According to the standard opinion, the hyperventilation of lungs in mountains is caused by an anoxemia (see. Hypoxia ), developing under the influence of the low partial pressure of oxygen in inhaled air. However, if it is lawful concerning big heights where saturation of blood oxygen considerably decreases, then at moderate heights (1200 — 1500 l) this dependence is excluded since the percent of oxygen of an arterial blood at such heights is not lowered. Researches of the last years showed that one of the main reasons of a hyperventilation is the increase in reactivity of a respiratory center to carbon dioxide occurring under the influence of factors of mountain climate. This mechanism plays a large role in processes And. to mountain climate as in certain borders promotes preservation in an alveolar air and an arterial blood of the normal oxygen content.

In the second phase A. there is an increase in amount of hemoglobin and erythrocytes, lowering of the level of standard metabolism, strengthening of activity of oxidizing enzymes. These acclimatization shifts are of particular importance at treatment of some diseases in the conditions of mountain climate.

In the third phase physiological functions are stabilized at such level which is characteristic of permanent residents of mountains, and expressed in nek-rum of an urezheniya of a heart rhythm, delay of speed of a blood-groove, decrease in level of standard metabolism, more economical expenditure of energy resources.

Thus, ability to And. allows people temporarily or to live constantly in any climatic zones of Earth. The general and private reactions of adaptation at normal reactivity of an organism are used in the medical and preventive purposes. In cases of pathological reactivity the medical effect is reached gradual And. or moving of patients to places with softer climate. Influence of rigid, extreme climatic factors is used as means of a training and a hardening of an organism.

The hygienic actions promoting acclimatization. The major role in simplification of process And. for again arriving population belongs to the relevant activities. Already in the design of settlements in different areas climatic features shall be completely considered. For the southern areas on the first place airing, gardening and flood of the settlement, in the north — hl moves forward. obr. antiwind protection.

At construction of dwellings in the south shall be considered first of all: orientation — an exception zap. and South zap. orientations, obligatory through airing, structure of open galleries, gardening, reduction of svetoproyem, increase in heat capacity of wall materials. On Far North the first place is allocated to antiwind actions: an arrangement of buildings the face party in the direction of the dominating winds, placement of utility rooms with navetrenny, and inhabited — alee. As showed observations, optimum temperature in the dwelling in the south is slightly higher, than in middle latitudes and corresponds 21 — 23 ° at the size of differences down no more than 3 — 4 °. In the south the major role belongs to conditioning. At t ° fresh air 30 ° and more than temperature indoors shall be maintained at the level of not lower than 24 ° in order to avoid cooling and unpleasant feeling of a chill.

The important role in improvement of the population, especially children's, belongs to the sources of artificial lighting enriched with an ultra-violet component in the north. Check in practice of the so-called erythematous fluorescent lamps included in network of usual lighting showed big efficiency of their use for compensation of ultra-violet insufficiency.

Experience of the people in the south gives various solutions of a question of clothes. In arid hot climate wadded dressing gowns, in humid subtropics — free clothes from light fabrics are eurysynusic (in India — like muslin). The main requirements to clothes for the South — a possibility of airing of subclothes air gaps and protection against excessive insolation — are often difficult compatible. Special attention in the south shall be paid to a headdress. Pas the North the clothes shall meet three requirements: to be rather warm and wind-shelter with the minimum weight and the maximum flexibility. Best of all cervine fur meets these requirements. Much the fur which is put on by an inner side outside, and a hair inside has the best wind-shelter properties. As showed experiments, the usual set of wadded clothes satisfies only with a wind force no more than 5 m/s. At big speeds of the movement of air of improvement vetro-and heat-protective properties of clothes it is possible to achieve corresponding changes of breed and use of a covering from the wind-shelter, water-repellent, impregnated with special structure fabric without its pro-stitches with the subject layer of a heat insulator.

Water supply represents an extremely important task not only in the conditions of climate of the South, but also on Far North. Transformation of snow or ice into drinking water demands expense of large amounts of fuel. Various methods of desalting (distillation) are of great importance for desert and semidesertic regions of the South where the available sources of water differ in the increased salinity. In recent years it is offered and showed great value in practice a method of desalting of water by means of ion-exchange resins. Rationalization of food and drinking mode in relation to climatic conditions is of great importance for And. First of all it is necessary to consider quantitative and qualitative structure of food, distribution of meals within a day, the need for vitamins.

In the frigid climate which is sharply raising in process And. a consumption of polyneuramins an organism, year-round providing adults and children with fresh vegetables and meat-and-milk products is necessary (broad development in the Polar region of reindeer breeding, cattle breeding, greenhouse economy on artificial heating p lighting). Before receiving enough local vegetables, milk, meat, eggs it is necessary to implement in food on Far North the vitaminized foodstuff: the flour enriched with vitamins of the B1 group, the sugar enriched with redoxon, the fats enriched with vitamin A. Broad development of fish breeding is necessary. Very important also use of wild-growing vitaminonos, including berries.

Special attention shall be paid on fight against an alcohol abuse which in the conditions of the North quite often is the reason of especially severe cold injuries and psychoses.

In the conditions of hot climate the major hygienic action promoting And., fuller compensation of losses (is at the strengthened sweating) water and sodium chloride. As the drinks satisfying thirst normalizing a water balance soda water, the acidified tea, the cook tea (green tea), cherry broth, vitamin drinks are applied soleno.

Observance of the corresponding mode of work, life and rest is of great importance in process And. The big role in observance of the mode belongs not only to individual measures of personal hygiene, but in a bigger degree to rationing and regulation of the mode of life of collective — to the simultaneous beginning and the end of work, respect for silence in hours of a dream, to blackout of windows, the strengthened lighting (internal and outside) in the hours corresponding to «day», etc.

In the conditions of Far North it is necessary to hold the special events directed to fight against decrease in a tone of the central nervous system, an adynamia. At the same time an important role is played by development of different types of physical culture (especially swimming in indoor pools) and the organization of sports competitions.

For And. the population in again developed climatic areas the extremely important role belongs to creation in the new place of the conditions which are most promoting satisfaction of spiritual needs of the population. At the same time the role of all types of active recreation and public life is big.



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N. N. Voronin; T. A. Zaletayeva (And. zhi-votn. and rast.), I. S. Kandror (And. in dry and hot subtropics), V. A. Matiukhin (And. in the conditions of Far North), V. F. Ovcharova (physical.), G. A. Ushveridze (And. in the conditions of highlands).

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