ACCEPTOR OF RESULTS OF ACTION (Latin acceptor — accepting) — the physiological device of anticipation and assessment of results of action. Assumptions of existence of such dynamic organization in c. N of page treat 1933 (P. K. Anokhin, E. Strezh), and the term «acceptor of results of action» is entered by the academician P. K. Anokhin in 1955. Representation about A.R. as the nodal mechanism of functional system is further development of the Pavlovsk principle of a signalnost (see. Conditioned reflex ).
Development of the principle of a signalnost entered by the academician I. P. Pavlov allowed P. K. Anokhin to put forward the idea about the advancing reflection of reality, the cut is an important component And. river of. In datalogical aspect And. river of — the afferent model (image) of key parameters of results of action forming even before commission of action on the basis of previous experience as a result of afferent synthesis (see). Information on real results of perfect action coming to c. the N of page as a part of the return afferentation, is compared to the foreseen parameters of these results presented in And. river of that provides constant assessment of the received result and by that defines expediency of the behavioural act.
In the physiological plan And. the river of represents a complex of the advancing vozbuzhdeniye fulfilled in the course of afferent synthesis and corresponding according to contents to those afferent vozbuzhdeniye which will appear in the future in the form of the return an afferentation from parameters of real result.
Advancing excitement as an all-physiological basis And. rubles of are shown in such phenomena as the reaction of activation noted on the electroencephalogram in the structures participating in assessment of parameters of future result; change of background activity of the corresponding neurons, and also setup of relay kernels of analyzers and receptors on properties of future irritation — result — due to efferently caused change of the area and sensitivity of receptive fields. Especially many researches are devoted to studying of constant potential of bark, the negative deviation to-rogo precedes any purposeful action. Amplitude of a negative deviation named by W. G. Walter «a wave of expectation» depends on probability of emergence of the expected event. In case of coincidence of the expected and actual parameters of result there is a number of the processes connected with achievement of the goal: elimination of initial motivation, emergence of positive emotion, fixing in memory of that system of nervous ratios, led edges to successful achievement of the goal, transition to the following behavioural act, etc. In case of discrepancy arises approximate, and at long discrepancies — negative emotional reaction.
Physiological aspect And. the ruble of is most in detail developed for breath and behavioural acts where its functional sense is especially demonstrative.
The adjuster of musical instruments, changing tightness of a string, tries to obtain compliance of really elicited sound with in advance planned and presented in And. river of.
And. the river of is especially functional device and forms with participation of the various afferent structures of a brain which are dynamically combined for obtaining information on various parameters of result. However some structures of a brain, e.g. frontal departments of bark at the highest mammals and the person, have the closest relation to its formation. Expectation of future results is supported by the activating influences of a reticular formation and hypothalamus which receive copies of team on collaterals of a pyramidal path.
And. the river of as the device of anticipation of future events and their assessment is an obligatory component of any functional system: neither behavioural acts, nor the speech and understanding of the speech, recognition and perception are impossible without anticipation. Anticipation is necessary even in a dream. The efferent impulsation sent in a dream to muscles and causing change of position of a body at the same time causes the advancing excitement of thalamic kernels of the somestetichesky analyzer; the afferentation resulting from the movement meets the prepared model at the thalamic level and does not cause an orientation response, would lead edges to awakening.
Researches of early post-natal devices of functional system of meal at newborn children and kittens showed that And. rubles of of inborn reactions are functionally full-fledged already by the time of the birth. And. the ruble of is obligatory not only for implementation of the inborn and acquired behavioural acts, but also in compensatory processes (see) where it directs all course of recovery of the broken functions, and also in any processes of self-control of physiological functions (see). It is quite in detail studied, e.g., And. the ruble of of functional system of breath forming on special internuncial neurons of a respiratory center.
And. the ruble of as the device of assessment of adaptive mechanisms by their results is widely presented at different stages of evolution of fauna and can be carried out even in the form of complex biochemical mechanisms at unicells.
See also Functional systems .
Bibliography: Anokhin P. K. Biology and neurophysiology of a conditioned reflex, M., 1968; it, Theory of functional system, Usp. fiziol. sciences, t. 1, No. 1, page 19, 1970, bibliogr.; Probabilistic forecasting in the speech, under the editorship of R. M. Frumkina, M., 1971; Gregory R. L. An eye and a brain, psychology of vision, the lane with English, M., 1970, bibliogr.; Frontal lobes and regulation of mental processes, under the editorship of A. R. Luriya and E. D. Hom-skaya, M., 1966; Shvyrkov V. B. and Grinchenko Yu. V. Electrophysiologic studying of an acceptor of results of action in tool behavior, Zhurn. vyssh. nervn. deyateln., t. 22, No. 4, page 792, 1972, bibliogr.
V. B. Shvyrkov.