ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE USSR (ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE USSR) — the highest scientific institution of the USSR, the largest center of world science. The Academy of Sciences of the USSR combines the most outstanding scientists of the country. Full members (academicians), corresponding members, and also foreign members of Academy are its part.
The academy is founded in 1724 in St. Petersburg under Peter I's decree. Peter I L. L. Blyumentrost's physician-in-ordinary was its first president (1725 — 1733). During an initial stage of existence of Academy in its structure the invited foreign scientists prevailed; among them there were largest scientists L. Euler, D. Bernoulli. In 1742 in Academy the great Russian scientist M. V. Lomonosov who made a huge contribution to development of a number of fields of science was elected. In 19 century. The academy combined around itself many outstanding scientists, such as P. L. Chebyshev, A. M. Butlerov, N. N. Beketov, K. M. Ber, etc. In 1907 in Academy the great Russian physiologist I. P. Pavlov was elected. The academy played a big role in distribution of education in Russia, development of domestic science, in studying of natural wealth of the country, preparation of scientific shots. Not only separate outstanding achievements, but also creation of recent trends in science are connected with a name of many scientists working in Academy. However during the pre-revolutionary period it had no material resources for broad, all-round development of scientific research; in its structure there was no large research institute. The academy had only several small laboratories and the museums. At the head of Academy the imperial government put representatives of court circles. After the February revolution of 1917. The academy acquired the right of election of the president.
Great October socialist revolution opened a new era in development of domestic science, created favorable conditions for expansion of activity of Academy. Attaching great value to science in construction of new society, the Communist Party, the Soviet government, personally V. I. Lenin showed continuous care of development of scientific research in Academy.
At the beginning of 1918. The general meeting of Academy expressed readiness of scientists to conduct the researches necessary for development of national economy. In April, 1918 in «A sketch of the plan of scientific and technical works» V. I. Lenin put forward a number of the major economic problems which solution required attraction of scientific forces of Academy. It referred studying of productive forces of the country, development of the principles of their rational placement and use, the solution of the problems connected with bystry economic recovery of the young Soviet republic to such problems.
From first years of the Soviet power in Academy scientific institutions of new type — large research institutes in the most important directions of science which activity was closely connected with problems of development of the socialist state began to be created. In 1925. The academy was recognized by the highest scientific institution of the country, it began to be called Academy of Sciences of the USSR (in 18 — 19 centuries was called the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences; from 1917 to 1925 — the Russian Academy of Sciences). Since 1933 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR submits directly to the Government (earlier she submitted to Narkompros). In 1934 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was transferred from Leningrad to Moscow. In days of the first five-years periods the network of scientific institutions of Academy (in 1928 there were 8 institutes, and by 1941 their number increased to 47) began to grow quickly, its structure significantly was replenished, relations with practice of socialist construction were strengthened. In 1936 the Academy included a number of institutes of a public and scientific profile. In the 30th years research bases and branches of Academy in the national republics, in a number of edges and areas began to be created. On the basis of these bases and branches in the majority of federal republics republican academies of Sciences grew afterwards. Following Lenin instructions on strengthening of communication of science with the national economy, the Soviet scientists made a big contribution to business of industrialization of the country, socialist transformation of agriculture, implementation of five-year plans. In days of the Great Patriotic War the Academy the research works connected with improvement of military equipment, research of new raw material resources in every possible way promoted defeat of the enemy.
In post-war years the network of scientific institutions of Academy and AN of federal republics began to grow quickly; work of Academy of Sciences of the USSR promoted recovery and further rise in the national economy. During this period the Academy played a big role in the solution of the largest scientific and technical problems, first of all problems of mastering nuclear energy and a research of space. At Presidium of Academy of Sciences of the USSR Council for coordination of scientific activity of academies of Sciences of federal republics was created. In 1957 the Siberian department of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and in the late sixties — the Far East and Ural scientific centers was organized. During communistic construction before Academy of Sciences of the USSR there were new responsible tasks. Important actions for increase in a role of Academy in development of basic researches as decisive condition of acceleration of scientific and technical progress were carried out.
Academy of Sciences of the USSR — the largest center of development of basic researches in the field of natural and social sciences in the country. The main objectives of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, according to its Charter, are development of researches in the field of natural and social sciences, carrying out the scientific research which is directly connected with requests of practice, identification of essentially new opportunities of technical progress and assistance to the fullest use of achievements of science in practice.
The Academy of Sciences of the USSR performs the general scientific management of researches on natural and social sciences in the country. It directs and coordinates work of scientists in development of mathematics, mechanics, physics, chemistry, biology, sciences about Earth and the Universe, some problems of the modern equipment.
The researches conducted in Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the field of social sciences make a big contribution to cultural development, to formation of Marxist-Leninist outlook. The XXIV congress of the CPSU gave appreciation of a contribution of Academy of Sciences of the USSR to acceleration of technical progress, in development of economy and strengthening of defense capability of the country, having emphasized that the most important condition of successful construction of communism at the present stage is further development of science, connection of achievements of a scientific and technological revolution with advantages of a socialist system.
For outstanding merits in development of the Soviet science and culture, in strengthening of economic and defense power of the country of Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1969 it was awarded by the Order of Lenin. In 1974, in connection with the 250 anniversary — the second Order of Lenin and Georgy Dimitrov's (NRB) award.
Operating controls of Academy of Sciences of the USSR is created by elections. Its supreme body is the General meeting of Academy. It discusses questions of development of science in the country and defines the directions of scientific research, resolves the main organizational issues of activity of Academy, elects members of Academy. For the management it the General meeting elects activity for 4 years Presidium of Academy as a part of the president, 6 vice-presidents, the chief scientific secretary of Presidium, academicians-secretaries of departments and other members of Presidium. From 1917 to 1936 A was the president of Academy. P. Karpinsky, from 1936 to 1945 — V. L. Komarov, from 1945 to 1951 — S. I. Vavilov, from 1951 to 1961 — A. N. Nesmeyanov. Since 1961 the president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR is M. V. Keldysh.
The Academy of Sciences of the USSR incorporates 16 specialized departments combining it members on the respective areas of science. Management of departments and scientific institutions of Academy is carried out by four sections of Presidium.
1. Section of physics and technology and mathematical sciences with departments: mathematicians; general physics and astronomy; nuclear physics; physics and technology problems of power; mechanics and management processes.
2. Section of chemical and technological and biological sciences with departments: general and technical chemistry; physical chemistry and technologies of inorganic materials; biochemistry, biophysics and chemistry of physiologically active connections; physiology; general biology.
3. Section of sciences about Earth with departments: geology, geophysics and geochemistry; oceanology, physics of the atmosphere and geography.
4. Section of social sciences with departments: stories; philosophies and rights; economies; literature and language.
The Siberian department, the Ural and Far East scientific centers of Academy of Sciences of the USSR combine the members of Academy who are working in scientific institutions according to Siberia, the Urals, the Far East and being a part of departments of Academy in the specialty. The Academy of Sciences of the USSR has also branches: Bashkir, Dagestan, Kazan, Karelian, Kola of S. M. Kirov, Komi, and the Siberian department — the Buryat, East Siberian and Yakut branches.
SCIENTISTS-PHYSICIANS ARE FULL MEMBERS OF ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
For April 1, 1974 as a part of Academy there were 237 academicians, 439 corresponding members, including 8 academicians and 3 corresponding members elected from among full members and corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Also foreign scientists elected for their big scientific merits in foreign members are a part of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Such outstanding scientists as Ch. Darwin, L. Pasteur, T. Geksli were elected foreign corresponding members of Academy. In 50 — the 70th years 20 century scientists-physicians were elected foreign members of Academy of Sciences of the USSR: K. Parkhon (CPP), K. Motes (GDR), U. G. Penfild (Canada), I. Rusnyak (BHP), K. (ChSSR), D. cone Blashkovich (ChSSR), S. of Ochoa (USA), etc. The scientists-physicians elected in full members of Academy since its basis are listed in the table.
Scientific research is conducted in 247 (1973) Academy of Sciences of the USSR scientific institutions in which works apprx. 40 thousand research associates (including apprx. 2,7 thousand doctors and more than 15 thousand candidates of science). At Academy of Sciences of the USSR is available apprx. 200 scientific councils — scientific and advisory bodies for the most important problems of natural and social sciences.
The Academy of Sciences of the USSR awards personalized gold medals and awards to scientists for outstanding scientific works and opening.
Publishing of Academy is carried out under the direction of Publishing council of Academy, is preferential on the basis of Nauka publishing house. In addition to books, the Academy issues 153 magazines (1972).
The Academy of Sciences of the USSR carries out broad bonds with the foreign and international scientific organizations, is a member of many international scientific organizations, actively participates in large international scientific actions (The international geophysical year, researches of Antarctic, the World Ocean; space researches, etc.). The academy signs agreements on joint scientific research with academies of Sciences and scientific institutions of other countries.
Researches on problems of medicine and adjacent fields of knowledge, and also on creation of the medical equipment and medicines are conducted in scientific institutions of section of chemical and technological and biological sciences, hl. obr. at institutes of a biological profile. Communication and coordination of researches with the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences on such problems are carried out by biological departments of Academy, the relevant scientific institutions and scientific councils of Academy. Researches, important for medical science, are conducted together with the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences and MZ USSR according to general plans and programs. The programs of researches on complex problems connected with further development of scientific bases of prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, psychological frustration with studying of higher nervous activity are developed, in particular. Together with the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences scientific conferences and meetings on urgent problems of medicine are held. In development of researches on joint programs not only Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, MZ USSR, but also academies of Sciences of federal republics, and in some cases and academies of Sciences of the socialist countries take part.
Bibliography: Lenin V. I. Complete works, prod. 5, t. 36, page 228, M., 1962; 220 years of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1725 — 1945, Vestie. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, No. 5-6, 1945; History of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, under the editorship of K. V. Ostrovityanov, t. 1 — 2, M. — L., 1958 — 1964; Keldysh M. V. The multinational Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and development of science, in book: The USSR and science, under the editorship of M. V. Keldysh, page 7, M., 1972; Knyazev G. A. and Koltsov A. V. A short sketch of history of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, M. — L., 1964; Petrov B. D. Physicians in Academy of Sciences (to the 250 anniversary of Academy), Owls. zdravookhr., No. 5, page 60, 1974; Charter of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, M., 1970.
V. D. Timakov.