ACADEMIC STATUSES, DEGREES —
officially accepted indicators of level of scientific or pedagogical qualification of specialists, their achievements in development of science, the equipment, culture and training with the higher education. In the Soviet Union At. h., pages are awarded to specialists with the higher education which profound professional knowledge and scientific works in a certain branch of science have.
In the different countries there are a swap historically developed terminology and the nomenclature At. h., page. In pre-revolutionary Russia there were degrees of the bachelor (iozdnelat. baccalaureus), master (Latin magister teacher), doctors of science. Degree of the master was awarded f-you high fur boots on specialties, except medical, to-ry awarded degree of the doctor of medicine at once, passing degree of the master. The following academic statuses were given: the assistant (Latin assistens helping), the associate professor (Latin docens training), professor (Latin professor the teacher), ordinary professor (Latin ordinarius ordinary) — occupying department, extraordinary professor (Latin extraordinarius peculiar) — not occupying a kafed-Ra *
In the Soviet Union At. h., pages are entered by the resolution SNK USSR of January 13, 1934 for encouragement of scientific work and professional development research and research and educational personnel. Academic degrees of the candidate and doctor of science, academic statuses — professor, the associate professor, the senior research associate, the assistant, the junior researcher are established.
According to the Resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR of December 29, 1975 the strict order of award is established At. h., page. According to this situation the academic degree of the doctor of science «is awarded by the decision of presidium of VAK USSR on the basis of the petition of the specialized council at a higher educational institution or research establishment (scientific and production association) accepted after public protection of the doctoral dissertation and the conclusion of the relevant advisory council of VAK USSR according to the submitted thesis». The academic degree of the candidate of science is awarded by the decision of the specialized academic council of a higher educational institution or scientific issledovate-lskogo institutions (research and production association) to the persons having, as a rule, the corresponding higher education, who successfully passed candidate examinations and publicly defended the dissertation for a degree of the candidate (medical, economic, pedagogical, etc.) sciences (see Theses medical). Applicants of academic degrees of the candidate and the doctor of science shall show ability to independent scientific research, ability to develop the urgent scientific problems having important theoretical and practical value. The applicant of an academic degree of the doctor of science, besides, shall prove the creative researcher. capable on high scientific level to put and solve the theoretical problems and large economic problems representing the significant contribution to science and practice.
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Highest certifying commission (VAK USSR) as control consider all master's and doctoral dissertations protected in the specialized academic councils then the board of VAK USSR makes the decision on issue of the diploma of the candidate of science, and presidium of VAK — on issue of the diploma of the doctor of science. VAK USSR on the basis of the conclusion of the relevant advisory council has the right to cancel the decision of specialized council on award of academic degrees.
The academic degree of the doctor of science is awarded, as a rule, to the persons having a candidate's degree on the corresponding branch of science. To the persons who received academic degrees of the doctor of science or candidate of science the diploma of a uniform sample is issued on behalf of VAK USSR.
Academic statuses of professor, associate professor, senior research associate are appropriated by VAK USSR on representation of the academic councils of higher education institutions or research establishments (scientific and production associations), the Crimea the right to excite the petition for assignment of the corresponding academic statuses to the persons having an academic degree of the doctor (for assignment of a rank of professor) or the candidate of science, a necessary experience of scientific and pedagogical work in the corresponding position and the proved highly skilled teachers, scientists and founders of schools of sciences and the directions is granted. The academic status of professor is given by the decision of presidium, a rank of the associate professor and senior research associate — the decision of board of VAK USSR. On Academy of Sciences of the USSR institutions and academies of Sciences of federal republics academic statuses of the senior research associate are appropriated to the persons having academic degrees of the doctor or candidate of science by presidium of Academy of Sciences of the USSR on representation of the academic councils of research establishments. To professors, associate professors, the senior research associates certificates of a uniform sample are issued.
In the USSR, as well as in many other countries, there are honourable academic degrees and ranks. So, e.g., honourable doctor (certain branch of science), honorary professor of any educational institution, honored worker of science, etc. These academic degrees and the ranks are given by the scientist for outstanding achievements in science, the equipment, including and the foreign scientist.
In the USSR there are also highest academic scientific ranks: corresponding member and full member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR or federal republics and nek-ry industry academies, including USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Corresponding members are elected by the relevant departments of academy of Sciences and approved by a general meeting of academy. Full members of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, federal republics and industry academies are elected by a general meeting of academy.
In the nek-ry socialist countries the system of certification of scientists and the list of academic degrees differs from accepted in the USSR. So, e.g., in Hungary the first academic degree — the doctor of university (it is appropriated to the graduates un-that who handed over 2 — 3 special examinations and protected work in the commission un-that), the second degree — the candidate of science and the third degree — the doctor of science. They are awarded by Academy of Sciences. The academic degree the doctor of university grants the right to hold a position of the assistant-teacher, and an academic degree the candidate of science — the associate professor and the head of the department. The statement as professor is carried out by the resolution of Council of ministers.
In GDR the academic degree of the doctor of the corresponding industry is equivalent to a candidate's degree of the corresponding industry in the USSR, doctor-ha-bilya (Latin habilitas suitability, ability) — positions of the associate professor or professor.
The academic degree of the doctor admitted to the Party of Russian Taxpayers is equivalent to a candidate's degree in the USSR. In higher education institutions such scientific and pedagogical ranks as the assistant, professor are accepted (extraordinary, ordinary). The State Council confirms to the post of professor of scientists, and from this point they are considered having a rank of professor.
In the capitalist countries, as a rule, in each higher educational institution there is the system of award of academic degrees; all these systems are not unified. However the main systems of certification of scientific shots are Anglo-American and French. The Anglo-American system provides academic degrees of the bachelor, master of sciences, the doctor of philosophy or the doctor of science. The academic degree of the bachelor of sciences (or arts) is appropriated ended the English or American higher educational institutions and passed special examinations, and sometimes and protected small abstract work on volume. The academic degree of the master of sciences (arts) is received by the persons having degree of the bachelor and who completed an additional course within 1 — 2 years, and in nek-ry high fur boots, besides, defended the dissertation like the thesis. The academic degree of the doctor of philosophy or in nek-ry high fur boots of the doctor of science is appropriated to the persons who defended the corresponding dissertations. In Burma, India, Iran and in many other countries to the persons which ended higher educational institutions with 4 — the 6-year term of training without protection of works, appropriates degree of the bachelor. The French system of certification provides to degree of the bachelor, the licentiate, an agrezha, doctors of science. Degree of the bachelor demonstrates the termination of high school. Degree of the licentiate persons on 2 — 4 years of training at the higher school receive, the passed examinations and performed the term paper. This degree grants the right to work as the teacher at high school. Degree an agrezha is appropriated to the graduates of high fur boots who passed additional examinations and defended the dissertation. Degree to an agrezha grants the right to be a teacher in lyceums. The academic degree of the doctor is appropriated to the persons who defended the corresponding dissertations. Academic statuses in the capitalist countries are, as a rule, given to the persons holding positions of professor or head of the department.
Equivalence of diplomas about education, academic degrees, scientific qualification is defined by special intergovernmental conventions. N. Sobolevsky.
The ACADEMIC MEDICAL COUNCIL (AMC) — the operating controls as a part of the Ministry of Health of the USSR (the Ministries of Health of federal republics) providing the scientific and methodical management of medical research establishments of allied (republican) subordination. UMS interact with the presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences performing the general management of medical science in the country with head departments and managements of the Ministry of Health of the USSR (see) and mines - in health care of federal republics.
For the first time UMS was created at Plank beds the lump is sensible about RSFSR in 1918 for the purpose of planning and coordination of research activity of medical institutions in the territory of all country. The UMS functions were defined by «The provision on the National commissariat of health care» published in «News of the National commissariat of health care» (1918). L. A. Tarasevich was appointed the chairman of UMS. Eminent persons of medical science, representatives of various industries of medicine took active part in work of UMS. UMS directed the activity to the solution of urgent tasks of health protection of the people, to-rykh were among: development of scientific and organizational actions and drafts of decrees on fight against epidemics of parasitic and intestinal infections; development of a problem of food on scientific and hygienic bases; development of network of medical research establishments; reorganization of medical education on new organizational and methodological bases; development of scientific bases of production and use of pharmaceuticals, drawing up a new pharmacopeia, etc.
In process of formation and development of health care in federal republics at their narkomzdrava UMS were created. So, e.g., in the Azerbaijani SSR of UMS it was organized in 1922, in the Ukrainian
SSR — in 1929, in the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic — in 1944. The standard structure of the device of republican UMS was defined in 1974. The standard provision on UMS Ministries of Health of the federal republic is approved by M3 of the USSR in 1975. In this provision of UMS is considered as the independent structural division of min.-va health care of the federal republic operating as Head department.
In 1936 UMS at Narkomzdrava was created by the USSR, in 1965 he acquired the rights of head department M3 of the USSR.
Its main objectives provided by «The provision on Academic medical council of the Ministry of Health of the USSR» (1982) include: organization of scientific research for the most important problems of clinical, epidemiological, hygienic character and control of results of these researches; the management of academic medical councils of mines - in health care of federal republics; planning and organization of events on implementation of achievements of medical science in practice of health care; improvement of network and structure of research establishments of the USSR M3 system; management of system of scientific and medical information and promotion of achievements of the Soviet medical science and health care.
UMS convenes a plenum once a year, to-ry considers the main results of development of medical science to the USSR and the plans of measures on implementation of its achievements in practice of health care, including on use of scientific achievements in practice of medical examination, improvement of different types of rendering medical aid to the population.
The decisions of plenums of UMS approved by the Minister of Health of the USSR are obligatory for all institutions and bodies of health care.
During the periods between plenums of UMS questions of planning and implementation of results of scientific research are considered by presidium and bureau of presidium of UMS. The presidium of UMS M3 USSR grants permission for use in accordance with the established procedure of new methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment, defines a circle of institutions, in to-rykh these methods shall be applied. The bureau of presidium of UMS considers and approves plans and reports of the subordinated UMS of research establishments.
Yo to system of medical service of Armed Forces of the USSR the Academic medical council of TsVMU MO combining large specialists in various fields of military medicine functions (see. Master military-medical control of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR).
Bibliography: Lenin decrees on health care, 1917 — 1921, sost.
A. I. Nesterenko, page 49, M., 1970; P from at l about in B. M., V. I. Lenin and health protection of the Soviet people, M., 1980.
O. K. Gavrilov.