ABORTION (Latin. abortus; synonym abortion) — abortion within the first 28 weeks when the fruit is still impractical.
Distinguish early abortion — during the first 14 — 15 weeks and late abortion — during 16 — 28 weeks. In a crust. time the term «late abortion» is recommended to replace with the term «untimely childbirth» or «childbirth by a crude fruit». In rare instances if the fruit which was born to 28 weeks remains live until an extract of mother from medical institution, abortion is considered as premature births (see).
On character of abortion And. divide into 2 groups: artificial and spontaneous. Artificial abortion — deliberate abortion in medical institution (And. artificial medical) or out of it (And. artificial criminal, extra hospital). Medical And. at the request of the woman it is made in terms up to 12 weeks; at pregnancy more than 12 weeks. And. it can be made only in the presence of contraindications to wearing out of pregnancy (see Abortion artificial). A misbirth — the abortion occurring without any interventions.
In obstetric pathology spontaneous And. has considerable specific weight. On materials of different authors, it makes 2 — 8% of total number of pregnancies.
Reason spontaneous And. can be: neuroendocrinal disturbances, infectious diseases, infantility, intoxications, diseases and malformations of generative organs, isoantigenic disparity of blood of mother and fruit, chromosomal anomalies of a fruit, etc.
Repetition spontaneous And. more than 2 — 3 times are called a usual abortion, treatment and prevention to-rogo present considerable difficulties (see Istmiko-tservikalnaya insufficiency, Nevynashivany pregnancies).
Current spontaneous And. depending on duration of gestation various. At early And. there is gradual amotio of fetal egg from a uterus; at the same time blood vessels of a decidua are damaged. The arising bleeding can be various intensity. Under the influence of pains the channel of a neck of uterus reveals and fetal egg is expelled (entirely or in parts). Late And. proceeds as premature births: there is a smoothing and disclosure of a neck of uterus, amniotic waters depart, the fruit, and then an afterbirth is born.
After exile of fetal egg, as a rule, resort to a control scraping of a mucous membrane of a cavity of the uterus (see the Scraping) since the remained elements of fetal egg can become the reason of serious complications: inflammations of a uterus and appendages, uterine bleeding, formation of a placental polyp. At late And. manual removal of a placenta then some obstetricians make a careful scraping of a mucous membrane of a uterus is admissible.
Sometimes at spontaneous abortion the died fruit remains in a cavity of the uterus on a long term (from several weeks to several months) — the late or cancelled abortion (see the Misbirth).
The women suffering spontaneous And., shall stay on the registry in clinic for women and be exposed to the most careful inspection. Clarification of the reasons of spontaneous abortion is important for treatment and prevention of a misbirth.
E. S. Obysova.