ABDERGALDEN Emil (Abderhalden Emil, 1877 — 1950) — the Swiss biochemist and the physiologist, the foreign member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, actions. member and member correspondent of academies of Sciences of many countries of the world. E. Abdergalden in 1901 ended medical f-t Basel un-that. Since 1904 — the privatdozent, since 1908 — professor of physiology and fiziol. chemistry in Veterinary in-those (Berlin), and from 1911 to 1945 — medical f-that in Halle. Since 1946 before retirement (1948) — the department chair fiziol. chemistry in Zurich. The main direction of works of E. Abdergalden — studying of chemistry and a biological role of proteins, polypeptides and especially effect of enzymes and hormones; studied also a role and value of fats and polyneuramins food. He established that fabric proteins differ in various structure. Carried out analyses of amino-acid composition of many proteins of various fabrics; established structural differences between them and on this basis offered classification of proteic matters on separate groups; discovered (1909) so-called protective, or defensive, the enzymes produced by an organism at its various physiological states in response to receipt in blood of foreign proteins. The diagnostic reaction based on definition of decomposition products of the alien substrates entered into blood serum is offered them (e.g., drug from a placenta, a tumor, etc.). This reaction called by the name of her author widely was applied still in the forties; because of not specificity nowadays lost the value. Together with Fischer (E. Fischer) carried out (1916) synthesis of polypeptide from separate free amino acids. To them it is established that proteins in food can be replaced with mix of amino acids; protein hydrolyzates are offered for food.
E. Abdergalden together with sotr. wrote more than 1000 scientific works: he is the author of monographs and textbooks on fiziol. chemistry and physiology. It published also a number of reference books in which creation he participated as the editor or the author of separate articles. Founded the Zeitschrift fur Fermentforschung magazine in 1916; actively cooperated in some other magazines and non-periodic editions. E. Abdergalden — the honorary member more than 60 science foundations of the different countries.
Works: Lehvbuch der physiologischen Chemie. Century — Wien, 1906, V., 1931 (the Russian lane, M. — L., 1934); Handbuch der biochemischen Arbeitsmcthoden, Bd 1—9, B. — Wien, 1909 — 1919 (Hrsg.); Schutzfermente der tierischen Organismus, B., 1912 — 1941; Handbuch der biologischen Arbeltsmethoden, Abt. 1 — 13, B. — Wien, 1920 — 1936 (Hrsg.); Lehrbuch der Physiologie, Bd 1 — 4, B-— Wien, 1925 — 1927.
Bibliography: Emil Abderhalden, Z. Vitamin-, Hormon-u. Fermcntiorsch., Bd 4, S. 1, 1951; Mall 1 G. Zum Tode von Geheimrat Emil Abderhalden, Dtsch. med. Wschr., S. 1410, 1950.
Yu. M. Gefter.